Cysteine protects rabbit spermatozoa against reactive oxygen species-induced damages.

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Cysteine protects rabbit spermatozoa against reactive oxygen species-induced damages.

PLoS One. 2017;12(7):e0181110

Authors: Zhu Z, Ren Z, Fan X, Pan Y, Lv S, Pan C, Lei A, Zeng W

Abstract
The process of cryopreservation results in over-production of reactive oxygen species, which is extremely detrimental to spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to investigate whether addition of cysteine to freezing extender would facilitate the cryosurvival of rabbit spermatozoa, and if so, how cysteine protects spermatozoa from cryodamages. Freshly ejaculated semen was diluted with Tris-citrate-glucose extender supplemented with different concentrations of cysteine. The motility, intact acrosomes, membrane integrity, mitochondrial potentials, 8-hydroxyguanosine level and sperm-zona pellucida binding capacity were examined. Furthermore, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, glutathione content (GSH), and level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hydrogen peroxide of spermatozoa were analyzed. The values of motility, intact acrosomes, membrane integrity, mitochondrial potentials and sperm-zona pellucida binding capacity of the frozen-thawed spermatozoa in the treatment of cysteine were significantly higher than those of the control. Addition of cysteine to extenders improved the GPx activity and GSH content of spermatozoa, while lowered the ROS, DNA oxidative alterations and lipid peroxidation level, which makes spermatozoa avoid ROS to attack DNA, the plasma membrane and mitochondria. In conclusion, cysteine protects spermatozoa against ROS-induced damages during cryopreservation and post-thaw incubation. Addition of cysteine is recommended to facilitate the improvement of semen preservation for the rabbit breeding industry.

PMID: 28700739 [PubMed – in process]

Shortening gametes co-incubation time improves live birth rate for couples with a history of fragmented embryos.

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Shortening gametes co-incubation time improves live birth rate for couples with a history of fragmented embryos.

Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2017 Jun 20;:1-7

Authors: Le Bras A, Hesters L, Gallot V, Tallet C, Tachdjian G, Frydman N

Abstract
Short gamete co-incubation (SGCO) consists in decreasing the duration of contact between oocytes and sperm from the standard overnight insemination (SOI) toward 2 hours. However, the effectiveness of this technique to improve in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) outcomes remains controversial. Our study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of SGCO in a poor prognosis population with a history of fragmented embryos defined by the presence of at least 50% of the embryos with more than 25% of cytoplasmic fragments. From January 2010 to January 2014, 97 couples were included in a SGCO protocol. We separated women into 2 subgroups: younger and older than 35 years. Compared to SOI, after SGCO, 2-cell stage embryos were higher in all women (p<0.001) and less fragmented in women over 35 years (p<0.05). On day 2, top quality embryos obtained and transferred were higher with SCGO than with SOI, independently of the age of the women (p<0.001). Moreover, the number of embryos with less than 25% of fragmentation was higher after SGCO than SOI (p<0.001) whereas the number of multinucleated embryos was lower (p<0.001). We observed that after fresh ET, independently of the age of the women, the clinical pregnancy rate was 3 times higher after SGCO than after SOI. However, the live-birth rate was 4 times higher with SGCO than with SOI in women above 35 years but 3 times higher with SGCO than with SOI in women younger than 35 years. The present results indicate that for a particular indication, reducing the time of oocytes and sperm co-incubation may improve IVF-ET outcomes in terms of live-birth rate.
ABBREVIATIONS: AMH: anti mullerian hormone; COC: cumulus-oocytes complex; E2: estradiol; ET: embryo transfer; FET: frozen embryo transfer; FSH: follicle stimulating hormone; GnRH: gonadotrophin releasing hormone; hCG: human chorionic gonadotropin hormone; hMG: human menopausal gonadotropin hormone; IRB: institutional review board; IVF: in vitro fertilization; IVF-ET: in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer; MNB: multinucleated blastomere; mRNA: messanger ribonucleic acid; OC: oocyte retrieval; O2: oxygen; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SGCO: short gamete co-incubation; SOI: standard overnight insemination.

PMID: 28632990 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Testis-specific isoform of Na/K-ATPase (ATP1A4) regulates sperm function and fertility in dairy bulls through potential mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species, calcium and actin polymerization.

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Testis-specific isoform of Na/K-ATPase (ATP1A4) regulates sperm function and fertility in dairy bulls through potential mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species, calcium and actin polymerization.

Andrology. 2017 Jun 08;:

Authors: Rajamanickam GD, Kroetsch T, Kastelic JP, Thundathil JC

Abstract
Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation (BBSE) eliminates bulls that are grossly abnormal; however, bulls classified as satisfactory potential breeders still vary in field fertility, implying submicroscopic differences in sperm characteristics. The testis-specific isoform of Na/K-ATPase (ATP1A4) is involved in regulation of sperm motility and capacitation in bulls through well-established enzyme activity and signaling functions. The objective was to determine ATP1A4 content, activity and their relationship to post-thaw sperm function and field fertility, using semen samples from low-fertility (LF) and high-fertility (HF) Holstein bulls (n = 20 each) with known FERTSOL rates (measure of field fertility, based on non-return rate). Frozen-thawed sperm from HF bulls had increased ATP1A4 content and activity compared to LF bulls. Furthermore, post-thaw sperm from HF bulls had increased tyrosine phosphorylation, ROS, F-actin content, and low intracellular calcium compared to LF bulls. Subsequent incubation of HF bull sperm with ouabain (a specific ligand of Na/K-ATPase) further augmented the post-thaw increase in tyrosine phosphorylation, ROS production, and F-actin content, whereas the increase in intracellular calcium was still low compared to LF bull sperm. ATP1A4 content and activity, ROS, F-actin and calcium were significantly correlated with fertility. In conclusion, we inferred that ATP1A4 content and activity differed among dairy bulls with satisfactory semen characteristics and that ATP1A4 may regulate sperm function through mechanisms involving ROS, F-actin and calcium in frozen-thawed sperm of HF and LF dairy bulls.

PMID: 28597551 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

The effect of antioxidants on sperm motility activation in the Booroolong frog.

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The effect of antioxidants on sperm motility activation in the Booroolong frog.

Anim Reprod Sci. 2017 May 20;:

Authors: Keogh LM, Byrne PG, Silla AJ

Abstract
Motile sperm can generate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) post activation, and ROS can quickly accumulate to levels that impair motility and fertilising ability. The addition of antioxidants to sperm suspensions has been suggested as a means of reducing oxidative stress and enhancing sperm motility during and after sperm storage. Despite this, very few studies have attempted to experimentally test the effects of antioxidants on sperm motility activation in animals that use an external mode of fertilisation, espcially in amphibians. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin C and vitamin E on sperm motility activation in the Booroolong frog. Spermatozoa were activated in media containing either vitamin C (0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25μgμL(-1)) or vitamin E (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 1.50, 1.75μgμL(-1)). Sperm performance parameters (percent motility and velocity) were assessed using CASA at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6h post-activation. Contrary to expectations, vitamin C supplementation was detrimental to sperm motility across all tested concentrations, while vitamin E had no effect. Further investigation on the endogenous antioxidant system of anuran sperm is required to ascertain whether alternative antioxidants may be more suitable at reducing ROS produced during sperm activation and improving sperm motility activation in vitro.

PMID: 28600162 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

The AhRR-c.565C>G transversion may increase total antioxidant capacity levels of the seminal plasma in infertile men.

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The AhRR-c.565C>G transversion may increase total antioxidant capacity levels of the seminal plasma in infertile men.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Jun 07;:

Authors: Josarayi GA, Mohammad-Hasani A, Aftabi Y, Moudi E, Hosseinzadeh Colagar A

Abstract
The Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-repressor (AhRR) is a regulator of the AhR pathway, which plays an important role in xenobiotic and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is a major factor in semen quality that protects sperm against ROS stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is the indicator of lipid peroxidation damage that is occurred due to ROSs. In this study, we determined and compared the MDA and TAC levels of infertile men’s semen and blood plasma regarding genotype groups of AhRR-c.565C>G transversion. Semen and blood samples of 123 infertile males were collected from the Fatemeh Zahra IVF Centre, Babol, Iran. TAC and MDA levels of seminal and blood plasma were measured by TBARS and FRAP methods, respectively. Cases were genotyped by the PCR-RFLP method. The frequency of c.565C>G genotypes was determined as CC (34.14%), CG (55.28%) and GG (10.58%). Mean levels of TAC μm/L and MDA nmol/mL in semen plasma of CC, CG and GG groups were (1365.7, 1.28), (1542.8, 1.51) and (1860.2, 0.82), respectively. Also, mean levels of TAC μm/L and MDA nmol/mL in blood plasma samples in CC, CG and GG genotypes were (806.14, 1.168), (727.1, 1.006) and (635.7, 0.83), respectively. Comparison of marker levels between genotypes revealed that the TAC level of semen plasma in the GG genotype was significantly higher than its level in the CC group (p < 0.05). Our findings showed that in seminal plasma of infertile men with the GG genotype of AhRR-c.565C>G transversion, the level of total antioxidant capacity is significantly higher in comparison with the CC genotype. Then, the G allele of AhRR-c.565C>G transversion may have a role in the increase in antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma.

PMID: 28593539 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

The Stimulated Glycolytic Pathway Is Able to Maintain ATP Levels and Kinetic Patterns of Bovine Epididymal Sperm Subjected to Mitochondrial Uncoupling.

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The Stimulated Glycolytic Pathway Is Able to Maintain ATP Levels and Kinetic Patterns of Bovine Epididymal Sperm Subjected to Mitochondrial Uncoupling.

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:1682393

Authors: Losano JDA, Padín JF, Méndez-López I, Angrimani DSR, García AG, Barnabe VH, Nichi M

Abstract
Studies have reported the importance of mitochondria in sperm functionality. However, for some species, the glycolytic pathway appears to be as important as oxidative phosphorylation in ATP synthesis and sperm kinetics. These mechanisms have not been fully elucidated for bovine spermatozoa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of mitochondria and the glycolytic pathway in ATP synthesis, sperm movement patterns, and oxidative homeostasis of epididymal spermatozoa in bovine specimens. We observed that mitochondrial uncoupling with protonophores significantly reduced ATP levels. However, these levels were reestablished after stimulation of the glycolytic pathway. We verified the same pattern of results for sperm kinetic variables and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, we suggest that, after its appropriate stimulation, the glycolytic pathway is capable of maintaining ATP levels, sperm kinetic patterns, and oxidative balance of bovine epididymal spermatozoa submitted to mitochondrial uncoupling.

PMID: 28588746 [PubMed – in process]

The effect of dietary grape pomace supplementation on epididymal sperm quality and testicular antioxidant ability in ram lambs.

The effect of dietary grape pomace supplementation on epididymal sperm quality and testicular antioxidant ability in ram lambs.

Theriogenology. 2017 Jul 15;97:50-56

Authors: Zhao J, Jin Y, Du M, Liu W, Ren Y, Zhang C, Zhang J

Abstract
Wine grape pomace (WGP) contains a rich source of polyphenols that can act as powerful antioxidants. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary WGP supplementation on antioxidative activity and epididymal sperm quality in rams. The rams were raised either under free-range or pen conditions, and the pen-raised rams were fed a WGP-containing diet (0, 5% and 10% of dry matter basis) for 74 days. An increase in the concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS, P < 0.05) and malondialdehyde (MDA, P < 0.05) were observed in the testes of rams subjected to restraint stress, and dietary WGP supplementation effectively decreased their contents (P < 0.05). Restraint stress reduced both weight and volume of testes, and impaired sperm quality. Dietary WGP supplementation increased testes weight, sperm concentration, motility and acrosomal integrity, and decreased sperm deformity in pen-raised animals (P < 0.05). The total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) and catalase activity were decreased in the testes of pen-raised lambs (P < 0.05), and T-AOC, catalase, glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were increased when rams were fed the WGP-containing diet (P < 0.05). With the exception of SOD and GPx4, the mRNA contents of catalase and nuclear factor-like-2 factor (Nrf2) did not vary among the groups, and greater protein levels of SOD, catalase and GPx4 were observed in WGP-treated lambs (P < 0.05). Taken together, these results suggest that WGP can be used as a feed ingredient in rams to alleviate restraint induced oxidative stress and improve epididymal sperm quality.

PMID: 28583608 [PubMed – in process]

Human sperm Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediates acrosome reaction, oxidative stress markers, and sperm parameters in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide in infertile men.

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Human sperm Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediates acrosome reaction, oxidative stress markers, and sperm parameters in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide in infertile men.

J Assist Reprod Genet. 2017 May 26;:

Authors: Sahnoun S, Sellami A, Chakroun N, Mseddi M, Attia H, Rebai T, Lassoued S

Abstract
PURPOSE: To study the role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in human spermatozoa and to assess sperm parameters, oxidative stress markers, and acrosome reaction in response to the stimulation of TLR4 by its ligand, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as a major endotoxin of Gram-negative bacteria.
METHODS: Our study was carried out in 73 sperm samples from patients undergoing semen analysis for couple infertility investigations. The studied patients were divided into three groups: normozoospermic fertile patients (n = 13), patients with abnormal and leukospermic semen (n = 13), and patients with abnormal and non-leukospermic semen (n = 47). TLR4 expression in human spermatozoa was initially analyzed by western blot. Sperm samples were incubated in the presence of LPS (200 ng/ml) for 18 h. Then, sperm motility and vitality were evaluated by microscopic observation and oxidative stress markers as malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl groups (CG) were spectrophotometrically assessed in neat and selected sperm. A triple-stain technique was also performed to evaluate acrosome reaction in 15 sperm samples from infertile patients.
RESULTS: TLR4 expression was confirmed in human spermatozoa with a molecular weight of 69 kDa. In the normozoospermic group, no significant differences in sperm parameters and oxidative stress markers were shown after incubation with LPS in neat and selected sperms. Regarding samples from the non-leukospermic group, LPS reduced spermatozoa motility and vitality rates in selected sperm (P = 0.003; P = 0.004, respectively). A significant increase of MDA and CG levels was also detected (P = 0.01; P = 0.02, respectively). However, only the MDA levels were significantly increased (P = 0.01) in neat LPS-stimulated sperm. The same results were shown within the leukospermic group. The comparison between the two groups, leukospermic and non-leukospermic, in selected sperms showed a more important LPS effect in the leukospermic group significantly on motility and MDA rates (P = 0.006; P = 0.009, respectively). Furthermore, a significant decrease in reacted spermatozoa rate was detected in response to LPS in selected sperm samples from infertile men (P = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that human spermatozoa express TLR4 and respond to LPS stimulation with alterations in viability, motility, and the acrosome reaction implicating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in sperm samples from infertile patients.

PMID: 28550386 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Comparison of two methods of seminal plasma removal on buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm cryopreservation.

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Comparison of two methods of seminal plasma removal on buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm cryopreservation.

Reprod Domest Anim. 2017 May 19;:

Authors: Albuquerque RS, Morais R, Reis AN, Miranda MS, Dias E, Monteiro FM, Paz C, Nichi M, Kawai G, Della’Aqua C, Papa FO, Viana RB, Gimenes LU

Abstract
Cryopreservation causes damage to spermatozoa, and methods minimizing this damage are therefore needed. Although much discussed, seminal plasma removal has become an alternative to improve sperm quality and viability after freezing and has been applied to different species in attempt to obtain good results. The objective of this study was to evaluate semen quality in buffaloes submitted to two methods for seminal plasma removal (filtration and centrifugation). Semen samples were collected from seven Murrah buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) once a week for 8 weeks. Each ejaculate was divided into three groups: control (presence of seminal plasma), centrifugation and filtration. Sperm kinetics was evaluated with the computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. Plasmalemma and acrosomal membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by flow cytometry, and lipid peroxidation was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Seminal plasma removal did not improve sperm kinetics compared to the control group. Centrifugation increased the number of cells with damaged acrosomal membranes (0.77 ± 0.05) and filtration caused greater plasmalemma and acrosomal membrane damage (22.18 ± 1.07). No difference in the mitochondrial membrane potential was observed between groups. In contrast, ROS production was higher in the centrifugation group compared to the control and filtration groups, although no differences in TBARS formation were detected. In conclusion, seminal plasma removal did not improve the quality of thawed buffalo semen compared to control in terms of sperm kinetics, membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential or lipid peroxidation.

PMID: 28543808 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Tea polyphenol-T. arjuna bark as sperm antioxidant extender in infertile smokers.

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Tea polyphenol-T. arjuna bark as sperm antioxidant extender in infertile smokers.

Cryo Letters. 2017 Mar/Apr;38(2):95-99

Authors: Parameswari R, Rao KA, Manigandan P, Vickram AS, Archana A, Sridharan TB

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Antioxidants protect spermatozoa against lipid peroxidation during freezing.
OBJECTIVE: The study is designed to elucidate the suitable extender to preserve infertile semen of smokers against ROS damage using natural Tea polyphenol (T. arjuna bark extract).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two infertile subjects with smoking habit and 28 fertile subjects without smoking habit were considered for the study. Four semen extenders including our naturally derived antioxidant component were prepared and used to preserve semen sample from the study subjects for a period of one month. Standard semen parameters, biochemical and sperm DNA damage marker with inhibition were measured before and after cryopreservation.
RESULTS: The motility and morphology of sperm cells were maintained better in E4 extender, and DNA damage is reduced.
CONCLUSION: Extender recipe with natural antioxidants (E3 and E4) was found to be apt for infertile semen preservation.

PMID: 28534052 [PubMed – in process]