Sexual dimorphism in base of skull.

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Sexual dimorphism in base of skull.

Anthropol Anz. 2017 Apr 01;74(1):9-14

Authors: Amores-Ampuero A

Abstract
ABSTRACT: Sex determination is an important task in forensic medicine and physical anthropology. The aims of this study were to assess the presence of sexual dimorphism in the base of the skull and to compare the accuracy of sex estimation by this method with that achieved in other metric studies of this region. The sample comprised 109 individuals (53 males and 56 females) of known sex, age, and cause of death from San José cemetery in Granada (Spain). Six dimensions were analyzed and discriminant function analysis was performed. The discriminant capacity of the selected variables was then evaluated by using a cross-validation procedure. All dimensions were significantly higher in males than in females. The percentage accuracy was 75.7% (77.8% for males and 73.7% for females). Highest dimorphic values were for occipital condyle length and foramen magnum width. Skull base measurements should only serve to corroborate findings.

PMID: 28362021 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Biometric sex estimation using the scapula and clavicle in a modern Greek population.

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Biometric sex estimation using the scapula and clavicle in a modern Greek population.

Anthropol Anz. 2017 Aug 01;:

Authors: Koukiasa AE, Eliopoulos C, Manolis SK

Abstract
ABSTRACT: Human skeletal remains exhibit sexual dimorphism, which is apparent in adult living individuals as well. Researchers from forensic and osteoarchaeological fields have a growing interest in establishing metric standards for sexing by use of discriminant function analysis. The present study focuses on providing sex estimation metric standards using measurements from the scapula and clavicle in a Modern Greek sample (Athens Collection) consisting of 107 male and 90 female skeletons. A total of seven measurements were taken: maximum scapular height and breadth, glenoid cavity height and breadth, maximum clavicular length, anterior and superior clavicular diameter. The calculation of Sexual Dimorphism Index showed a significant degree of sexual dimorphism on both bones ranging from 10% to 18%. Statistical analysis provided the discriminant functions with an accuracy of correct sex estimation between 84.9% and 91.4%, and showed that the highest accuracy rate was obtained from the left scapula measurements; proving that this bone can be a useful tool in providing an accurate sex estimation in skeletal remains of Modern Greek origin.

PMID: 28765871 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Sex estimation using the femur of Austrians born in the 19th to the middle of the 20th century.

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Sex estimation using the femur of Austrians born in the 19th to the middle of the 20th century.

Anthropol Anz. 2015;72(1):117-27

Authors: Kanz F, Fitzl C, Vlcek A, Frommlet F

Abstract
Sex estimation of human bones or bone fragments is crucial for the identification process of unknown bodies. Regional differences and secular changes lead to ever changing osteometric standards for different populations. This study provides femoral dimensions of Austrians born between 1822 and 1949 and evaluates the discriminating power of sex estimation functions developed by discriminant analyses. Depending on the state of preservation up to 127 femora of adult individuals (72 females and 55 males) were measured. The following means and standard variations were obtained: Maximum length (male: 449.7 ± 16.7 mm, female: 413.9 ± 16.3 mm), head circumference (148.5 ± 7.8 vs. 133.8 ± 6.4 mm), vertical (46.9 ± 2.4 vs. 41.9 ± 2.1 mm), transverse (46.3 ± 2.4 vs. 41.5 ± 2.0 mm), and maximum head diameter (47.0 ± 2.3 vs. 42.0 ± 2.1 mm), as well as sagittal (28.3 ± 2.2 vs. 26.2 ± 1.8 mm), transverse (27.9 ± 2.5 vs. 26.1 ± 2.0 mm), and maximum midshaft diameter (29.2 ± 2.1 vs. 27.3 ± 1.6 mm) and finally condylar width (79.6 ± 4.6 vs. 71.9 ± 3.8 mm). The (cross-validated) discriminant analysis for single measurements showed that the best classification is obtained using femur head dimensions, with correct sexing rates between 84.8 % for the circumference and 87.8 % for the maximum diameter. The maximum length achieved a similarly high rate of correct classification with 86.5 %, whereas the rate for the condylar width (80.6 %) was somewhat lower. The potential of midshaft dimensions for sex estimation was substantially weaker (62.3 to 70.8 %). With regard to a multivariate analysis, a stepwise selection procedure favoured a combination of maximum length and vertical head diameter with 90.1 % being correctly classified. A combination of maximum length, maximum head diameter and maximum midshaft diameter resulted in an even higher rate of 91.5 %. These Austrian standards may provide additional possibilities for sexing unknown bodies and skeletal remains born in the 19(th) to the middle of the 20(th) century.

PMID: 25776530 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Echoes from birth–mutual benefits for physical and forensic anthropology by applying increment counts in enamel of deciduous teeth for aging.

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Echoes from birth–mutual benefits for physical and forensic anthropology by applying increment counts in enamel of deciduous teeth for aging.

Anthropol Anz. 2014;71(1-2):87-103

Authors: Witzel C

Abstract
The present study aims to compare metrical and morphological features of skeletal and dental development in two skeletons of very young infants from different archeological sites in Syria with the results of the microscopic approach of age-at-death estimation based on the neonatal line (NNL). Here, the presence ofa NNL is used as an indicator of birth survival and the duration of the lifespan post partum is assessed by counting prism cross-striations (PCS) external to the NNL. In the literature, PCS have been determined to represent a circadian rhythm in human enamel formation. For both individuals, consistent results in terms of the presence of a NNL and the counts of prism cross-striations could have been obtained. In the younger individual evidence of a postnatal age at death of less than two weeks was documented. This study demonstrates that the use of the NNL as an individual landmark without the need for the reference to growth standards enables an estimation of age at death on skeletal remains of infants within much narrower ranges compared with metrical and morphological analyses. To date, presence of a NNL is the only way of documenting birth survival in skeletons of perinatal individuals. This method can be applied to forensic and bioarcheological skeletal material.

PMID: 24818441 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]