Sex estimation of the tibia in modern Turkish: A computed tomography study.
Leg Med (Tokyo). 2016 Nov;23:89-94
Authors: Ekizoglu O, Er A, Bozdag M, Akcaoglu M, Can IO, García-Donas JG, Kranioti EF
The utilization of computed tomography is beneficial for the analysis of skeletal remains and it has important advantages for anthropometric studies. The present study investigated morphometry of left tibia using CT images of a contemporary Turkish population. Seven parameters were measured on 203 individuals (124 males and 79 females) within the 19-92-years age group. The first objective of this study was to provide population-specific sex estimation equations for the contemporary Turkish population based on CT images. A second objective was to test the sex estimation formulae on Southern Europeans by Kranioti and Apostol (2015). Univariate discriminant functions resulted in classification accuracy that ranged from 66 to 86%. The best single variable was found to be upper epiphyseal breadth (86%) followed by lower epiphyseal breadth (85%). Multivariate discriminant functions resulted in classification accuracy for cross-validated data ranged from 79 to 86%. Applying the multivariate sex estimation formulae on Southern Europeans (SE) by Kranioti and Apostol in our sample resulted in very high classification accuracy ranging from 81 to 88%. In addition, 35.5-47% of the total Turkish sample is correctly classified with over 95% posterior probability, which is actually higher than the one reported for the original sample (25-43%). We conclude that the tibia is a very useful bone for sex estimation in the contemporary Turkish population. Moreover, our test results support the hypothesis that the SE formulae are sufficient for the contemporary Turkish population and they can be used safely for criminal investigations when posterior probabilities are over 95%.
PMID: 27890111 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
A finding in genetic polymorphism analysis study: A case of non-mosaic 47, XXX without manifestations.
Leg Med (Tokyo). 2017 Jun 30;27:38-42
Authors: Yang X, Ye Z, Zhang X, Wang H, Liu C
Trisomy X (47, XXX) is a sex chromosome aneuploidy condition in which females have an extra X chromosome, compared to the 46, XX karyotype in typical females. There is considerable variation in the phenotype, with some individuals very mildly affected and others with more significant physical and psychological features. However, the trisomy X in this case, without any of these phenotype, is rarely reported. Here, we report a case found during DNA sample collection in a study of genetic polymorphism analysis of loci in Chinese ethnic group, of a female with neither laboratory or clinical signs of Triple X syndrome. She was born at her mother’s 60years old and her father’s 62years old. Advanced maternal age was found acting as a significant risk factor of Triplo-X. Moreover, her child are also born without manifestations of 47, XXX syndrome. Pedigree study demonstrated the normal karyotype of the children. A diagnosis of 47XXX was made on the basis of a chromosomal study. Therefore, laboratory investigations (including PCR amplification, more than two kinds of X-STR genotyping, G-banding karyotyping analysis and Pedigree study) are applied to rule out the possibility of Mosaicism (45, X0/47, XXX) and ascertain her 47XXX karyotype without mosaic. The objective of this study was to report a case of trisomy X, diagnostic investigation and management of the case, and to analysis the genetically possible reasons behind the case. To our knowledge, this case is a rare one, found in DNA sample collection for the estimation of gene frequency in the process of genetic polymorphism study, of non-mosaic 47, XXX without signs of physical syndrome and born healthy children. In this study, it revealed that the proportion of trisomy X would be more than official statistics and risk of systemic disabilities is lower than estimated. Moreover, we found out that sample mixture and mosaicism act as the interference factors in forensic test. Therefore, we draw the conclusion that attentions and certain improved methods should be applied to the diagnosis of non-mosaic triple X, which is of great significance in decreasing the interruptions in the whole process of forensic and paternity identification.
PMID: 28697408 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Geometric morphometric and traditional methods for sex assessment using the posterior ilium.
Leg Med (Tokyo). 2017 May;26:52-61
Authors: Rmoutilová R, Dupej J, Velemínská J, Brůžek J
The human hip bone is generally accepted as the most reliable bone for sex estimation in forensic and bioarchaeological disciplines. However, it is seldom completely preserved. The best preserved region is typically around the sacroiliac joint and its auricular surface; it is therefore surprising that this surface has not been involved in standard sexing methods. The aim of this study was to explore the shape and size sexual dimorphism of the auricular surface in detail and to compare its sex estimation accuracy using the geometric morphometric (GM) and traditional methodological approach. Our sample consisted of 121 specimens from 3 European osteological collections. The GM part of the study was based on 2D sliding semilandmarks that covered the outline of the auricular surface. Furthermore, several linear measurements and visual features (e.g. auricular surface elevation, postauricular sulcus) were chosen to test sex estimation accuracy using support vector machines. Concerning the GM analysis, the most notable sexual differences in the auricular surface outline relate to size. The best accuracy was achieved using form variables reaching 81.0%. Comparable accuracy (80.2%) was achieved using the metric approach, but combined with visual features the accuracy was increased to 93.4%. The GM approach was not very efficient in sexing the auricular surface outline, but the combination of visual features from the posterior ilium and metric variables of the auricular surface could be useful in sex estimation. Therefore, we provide a further testable linear discriminant equation based on this combination of variables.
PMID: 28549548 [PubMed – in process]
Age estimation by the Cameriere’s normalized measurements (CNM) of the single permanent mandibular tooth on a panoramic radiograph.
Leg Med (Tokyo). 2017 May;26:65-72
Authors: Galić I, Pacifici A, Carbone D, Pacifici L, Jerončić A, Cameriere R
In this study Cameriere’s normalized measurements (CNM) of a single mandibular tooth were evaluated for age estimation on a sample of ortopantomographies (OPTs) of 2223 Italian children aged between 4 and 15years. Dental maturity was radiographically evaluated by CNM of the seven left permanent mandibular teeth (CNMi=Ai/Li, i=1,…,7); in monoradicular teeth, the distance (Ai, i=1,…,5) between the inner sides of the open apex was measured while in biradicular teeth (Ai, i=6, 7), the sum of the distances between the inner sides of the two open apices was calculated. Ai was normalized by the tooth length (Li, i=1,…,7). The intra- and inter-observer agreement of CNM measurements was almost perfect. Overall, analyzed mandibular teeth finished their development up to the age of 13, but the distribution of CNM varied among different locations. The final models included a tooth-specific CNM as the independent variable and explained from 76% (second molars) to 39% (first incisors) of the variance in chronological age. The bias and accuracy of these models, when applied to real-life data with no age limitation, were within acceptable range of differences in the forensic anthropology of children. Specifically, in all models mean of absolute differences between estimated and real age was within one year (0.67 for first incisors to 1.00 for canines). In conclusion this study showed that all mandibular teeth do not have equal applicability for age estimation suggesting that further evaluation on different samples is necessary to evaluate the usefulness of a single mandibular tooth for age estimation.
PMID: 28549551 [PubMed – in process]
Analysis of postmortem changes in internal organs and gases using computed tomography data.
Leg Med (Tokyo). 2017 Mar;25:11-15
Authors: Okumura M, Usumoto Y, Tsuji A, Kudo K, Ikeda N
Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) is a useful method to identify various causes of death and measure the volume of internal organs and gases. The purpose of this study was to investigate postmortem changes as measured by PMCT, and the relationship between the volume of organs and gases and postmortem interval (PMI). Forty-six cadavers (22 men, 24 women) were examined by CT before autopsy. The volumes of the lungs, intrahepatic gas, and intrarectal gas were measured by CT using a workstation. A stepwise regression analysis was used to establish a predictive equation to ascertain the measured volume using factors including sex, age, height, body mass index (BMI), body surface area (BSA), and PMI. For estimation of PMI, stepwise regression analysis was used. In the equations for each measured volume, height, diaphragmatic height, and BSA were adopted for the left lung; height and diaphragmatic height were adopted for the right lung; PMI was adopted for intrahepatic gas; and sex and PMI were adopted for intrarectal gas. In the PMI equations, left lung volume, intrahepatic gas, and intrarectal gas were adopted together with sex, weight, and BMI. Values of intrahepatic gas decreased with postmortem changes, while intrarectal gas increased. This may be useful in investigation of postmortem changes. It will be necessary to include other parts of the intestine and to analyze volume changes in gases from these parts after death.
PMID: 28457504 [PubMed – in process]
The identification of living persons on images: A literature review.
Leg Med (Tokyo). 2016 Mar;19:52-60
Authors: Gibelli D, Obertová Z, Ritz-Timme S, Gabriel P, Arent T, Ratnayake M, De Angelis D, Cattaneo C
Personal identification in the forensic context commonly concerns unknown decedents. However, recently there has been an increase in cases which require identification of living persons, especially from surveillance systems. These cases bring about a relatively new challenge for forensic anthropologists and pathologists concerning the selection of the most suitable methodological approaches with regard to the limitations of the photographic representation of a given person for individualization and identity. Facial features are instinctively the primary focus for identification approaches. However, other body parts (e.g. hands), and body height and gait (on videos) have been considered in cases of personal identification. This review aims at summarizing the state-of-the-art concerning the identification of the living on images and videos, including a critical evaluation of the advantages and limitations of different methods. Recommendations are given in order to aid forensic practitioners who face cases of identification of living persons.
PMID: 26980255 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Rectal temperature-based death time estimation in infants.
Leg Med (Tokyo). 2016 Mar;19:35-42
Authors: Igari Y, Hosokai Y, Funayama M
In determining the time of death in infants based on rectal temperature, the same methods used in adults are generally used. However, whether the methods for adults are suitable for infants is unclear. In this study, we examined the following 3 methods in 20 infant death cases: computer simulation of rectal temperature based on the infinite cylinder model (Ohno’s method), computer-based double exponential approximation based on Marshall and Hoare’s double exponential model with Henssge’s parameter determination (Henssge’s method), and computer-based collinear approximation based on extrapolation of the rectal temperature curve (collinear approximation). The interval between the last time the infant was seen alive and the time that he/she was found dead was defined as the death time interval and compared with the estimated time of death. In Ohno’s method, 7 cases were within the death time interval, and the average deviation in the other 12 cases was approximately 80 min. The results of both Henssge’s method and collinear approximation were apparently inferior to the results of Ohno’s method. The corrective factor was set within the range of 0.7-1.3 in Henssge’s method, and a modified program was newly developed to make it possible to change the corrective factors. Modification A, in which the upper limit of the corrective factor range was set as the maximum value in each body weight, produced the best results: 8 cases were within the death time interval, and the average deviation in the other 12 cases was approximately 80min. There was a possibility that the influence of thermal isolation on the actual infants was stronger than that previously shown by Henssge. We conclude that Ohno’s method and Modification A are useful for death time estimation in infants. However, it is important to accept the estimated time of death with certain latitude considering other circumstances.
PMID: 26980252 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Stature estimation from skull measurements using multidetector computed tomographic images: A Japanese forensic sample.
Leg Med (Tokyo). 2016 Jan;18:75-80
Authors: Torimitsu S, Makino Y, Saitoh H, Sakuma A, Ishii N, Yajima D, Inokuchi G, Motomura A, Chiba F, Yamaguchi R, Hashimoto M, Hoshioka Y, Iwase H
The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between stature and cranial measurements in a contemporary Japanese population, using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) images. A total of 228 cadavers (123 males, 105 females) underwent postmortem CT scanning and subsequent forensic autopsy between May 2011 and April 2015. Five cranial measurements were taken from 3D CT reconstructed images that extracted only cranial data. The correlations between stature and each of the cranial measurements were assessed with Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant correlations between stature and cranial measurements. In conclusion, cranial measurements obtained from 3D CT images may be useful for forensic estimation of the stature of Japanese individuals, particularly in cases where better predictors, such as long bones, are not available.
PMID: 26832382 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Estimation of stature from radiologic anthropometry of the lumbar vertebral dimensions in Chinese.
Leg Med (Tokyo). 2015 Nov;17(6):483-8
Authors: Zhang K, Chang YF, Fan F, Deng ZH
The recent study was to assess the relationship between the radiologic anthropometry of the lumbar vertebral dimensions and stature in Chinese and to develop regression formulae to estimate stature from these dimensions. A total of 412 normal, healthy volunteers, comprising 206 males and 206 females, were recruited. The linear regression analysis were performed to assess the correlation between the stature and lengths of various segments of the lumbar vertebral column. Among the regression equations created for single variable, the predictive value was greatest for the reconstruction of stature from the lumbar segment in both sexes and subgroup analysis. When individual vertebral body was used, the heights of posterior vertebral body of L3 gave the most accurate results for male group, the heights of central vertebral body of L1 provided the most accurate results for female group and female group with age above 45 years, the heights of central vertebral body of L3 gave the most accurate results for the groups with age from 20-45 years for both sexes and the male group with age above 45 years. The heights of anterior vertebral body of L5 gave the less accurate results except for the heights of anterior vertebral body of L4 provided the less accurate result for the male group with age above 45 years. As expected, multiple regression equations were more successful than equations derived from a single variable. The research observations suggest lumbar vertebral dimensions to be useful in stature estimation among Chinese population.
PMID: 26593994 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Estimation of stature and sex from scapular measurements by three-dimensional volume-rendering technique using in Chinese.
Leg Med (Tokyo). 2016 Jul;21:58-63
Authors: Zhang K, Cui JH, Luo YZ, Fan F, Yang M, Li XH, Zhang W, Deng ZH
In order to develop population – specific discriminant function equations and stature prediction equations for predicting sex and stature from measurements of the scapula in a contemporary Chinese, 414 individual 3D CT images were collected from participants undergoing routine examination. Sex differences for the variables were tested by Student’s t-test. Fisher’s method has been followed for discriminant analysis. Regression analysis was applied to match the six linear parameters against stature. The stepwise analysis of all measurements yielded a sex classification accuracy rate of 86.7% and a sex bias of 3.1%. All the classification accuracy rates of the univariate discriminant function analyses are of more than 80%. For stature estimation, the accuracy of stature prediction ranged from 5.252 to 7.210cm for male, from 4.630 to 6.484cm for female, respectively. This paper provides indications that the scapula is an important bone for sex diagnosis and it could be effectively used as alternatives in forensic cases. Furthermore, the equations presented for stature estimation in this study should be used as alternatives in forensic cases when long bones were unavailable for stature estimation.
PMID: 27497335 [PubMed – in process]