Antioxidants protect proteins’ anchorage to the bilayer by improving plasma membrane integrity of ram spermatozoa during liquid preservation in a soya lecithin-based diluent.

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Antioxidants protect proteins’ anchorage to the bilayer by improving plasma membrane integrity of ram spermatozoa during liquid preservation in a soya lecithin-based diluent.

Reprod Domest Anim. 2017 Jul 25;:

Authors: Paul RK, Kumar D, Naqvi S

Abstract
Antioxidants are known to prevent the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated peroxidative damage to the membrane lipids during hypothermic storage of mammalian spermatozoa. We hypothesized here that ROS also affect the lipid-protein interactions, thereby diminishing the membrane’s integrity and proteins’ anchorage to the bilayer. Antioxidants prevent these damages by scavenging the ROS. Ejaculates from Patanwadi rams were pooled after subjective evaluation and centrifuged using Percoll(®) . Sperm pellet was resuspended in soya lecithin-Tris-fructose diluent (400 × 10(6)  cells/ml) containing either antioxidants (100 IU/ml catalase + 10 mM reduced glutathione) or no antioxidant. Aliquots were chilled to 5°C in a cabinet and stored in a refrigerator at 3-5°C for 72 hr. Sperm motility, viability, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) were performed at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hr. Sperm proteins extracted with 0.5% Triton X-100 were resolved by SDS-PAGE and quantified using Quantity One software (Bio-Rad, USA). The rapid motility, linearity and straight-line velocity (VSL) were found significantly (p < .05) higher in the antioxidant-treated group compared to the control at 48 hr of storage. Sperm viability was found comparable between the groups. Higher HOST response and lower LPO were found in the antioxidant-treated sample compared to the control both at 48 and at 72 hr. Overall, the proteins P1 (106.09 kDa), P2 (87.00 kDa) and P4 (51.14 kDa) were lower (p < .05) in the sperm extract of antioxidant-treated group compared to the control. The content of P4 (51.14 kDa) in sperm extract was found to increase (p < .05) earlier (48 vs. 72 hr) in the control group compared to the antioxidant-treated group. Altogether, the results suggested that antioxidants reduced LPO in spermatozoa, resulting in higher sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and protection of proteins’ anchorage to the plasma membrane at 48 and 72 hr of storage.

PMID: 28741693 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Comparison of two methods of seminal plasma removal on buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm cryopreservation.

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Comparison of two methods of seminal plasma removal on buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm cryopreservation.

Reprod Domest Anim. 2017 May 19;:

Authors: Albuquerque RS, Morais R, Reis AN, Miranda MS, Dias E, Monteiro FM, Paz C, Nichi M, Kawai G, Della’Aqua C, Papa FO, Viana RB, Gimenes LU

Abstract
Cryopreservation causes damage to spermatozoa, and methods minimizing this damage are therefore needed. Although much discussed, seminal plasma removal has become an alternative to improve sperm quality and viability after freezing and has been applied to different species in attempt to obtain good results. The objective of this study was to evaluate semen quality in buffaloes submitted to two methods for seminal plasma removal (filtration and centrifugation). Semen samples were collected from seven Murrah buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) once a week for 8 weeks. Each ejaculate was divided into three groups: control (presence of seminal plasma), centrifugation and filtration. Sperm kinetics was evaluated with the computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. Plasmalemma and acrosomal membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by flow cytometry, and lipid peroxidation was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Seminal plasma removal did not improve sperm kinetics compared to the control group. Centrifugation increased the number of cells with damaged acrosomal membranes (0.77 ± 0.05) and filtration caused greater plasmalemma and acrosomal membrane damage (22.18 ± 1.07). No difference in the mitochondrial membrane potential was observed between groups. In contrast, ROS production was higher in the centrifugation group compared to the control and filtration groups, although no differences in TBARS formation were detected. In conclusion, seminal plasma removal did not improve the quality of thawed buffalo semen compared to control in terms of sperm kinetics, membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential or lipid peroxidation.

PMID: 28543808 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Detection of intracellular reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide) and lipid peroxidation during cryopreservation of alpaca spermatozoa.

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Detection of intracellular reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide) and lipid peroxidation during cryopreservation of alpaca spermatozoa.

Reprod Domest Anim. 2017 Apr 29;:

Authors: Evangelista-Vargas S, Santiani A

Abstract
The objective of this study was to detect changes in intracellular reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide) production and lipid peroxidation during cryopreservation of alpaca spermatozoa. Twelve alpaca semen samples were conventionally cryopreserved. Intracellular superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy using dihydroethidium (DHE)/YO-PRO-1 and dichlorofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA)/propidium iodide (PI), respectively. Evaluations were performed during cooling curve at (1) 25°C, (2) 15°C, (3) 5°C/0 min, (4) 5°C/15 min, (5) 5°C/30 min and (6) after freezing/thawing. Evaluation of lipid peroxidation by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) was performed at 25°C, 5°C/30 min and after thawing. Maximum percentages of total spermatozoa producing superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide were found at 5°C/30 min (62.8 ± 6.3% and 30.5 ± 5.6%, respectively), and these results were higher (p < .05) than initial (25°C: 10.8 ± 3.8% and 6.8 ± 0.7%, respectively) and after thawing (29.8 ± 9.5% and 7.5 ± 1.8%, respectively) values. However, considering only viable spermatozoa, production of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide during overall stabilization at 5°C (>76% and >91%, respectively) and after thawing (74.9 ± 5.0% and 78.9 ± 2.2%, respectively) was higher (p < .05) than initial values at 25°C (38.7 ± 3.1% and 53.6 ± 2.0%, respectively). Lipid peroxidation at 25°C, 5°C/30 min, and post-thawing were 346.5 ± 99.8, 401.1 ± 64.8 and 527.7 ± 142.8 ng/ml MDA, respectively. These results showed that high percentage of viable alpaca spermatozoa produces intracellular reactive species oxygen (ROS) during the cryopreservation process of alpaca semen.

PMID: 28455949 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Oestrous sheep serum balances ROS levels to supply in vitro capacitation of ram spermatozoa.

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Oestrous sheep serum balances ROS levels to supply in vitro capacitation of ram spermatozoa.

Reprod Domest Anim. 2016 Aug 5;

Authors: Del Olmo E, García-Álvarez O, Maroto-Morales A, Ramón M, Iniesta-Cuerda M, Martinez-Pastor F, Montoro V, Soler AJ, Garde JJ, Fernández-Santos MR

Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are fundamental for intracellular signalling. In spermatozoa, they are involved both to apoptosis and to capacitation, and changes in ROS levels can alter the balance between these two processes. Oestrous sheep serum (OSS) is considered an efficient agent for in vitro capacitation of ram spermatozoa. We have explored the effects of OSS on ram sperm physiology, especially on ROS production, during in vitro capacitation. Semen samples from 15 rams were cryopreserved. After thawing, samples were submitted to four treatments: control (CTL), 10% OSS supplementation for in vitro sperm capacitation, caspase inhibitor (INH, Z-VAD-FMK 100 μM) and OSS (10%) plus caspase inhibitor (I + E). Sperm samples were incubated for 30 min at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 and evaluated motility and kinetic parameters by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) and viability (propidium iodide), apoptotic-like membrane changes (YO-PRO-1), acrosomal status (PNA-FITC), intracellular calcium (FLUO-3), membrane fluidity (M540) and ROS production (CM-H2 DCFDA) by flow cytometry. OSS induced changes in kinetic parameters compatible with capacitation, with a decrease in the percentage of progressive motility and linearity, and an increase in the amplitude of the lateral displacement of the sperm head (p < .05). Moreover, OSS increased the proportion of M540+ viable spermatozoa, YO-PRO-1+ and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa (p < .05). After incubation, OSS and I+E achieved lower ROS levels (p < .05). Ca(2+) levels did not change with the incubation, but were slightly higher (p < .05) when both OSS and the inhibitor were present. We suggest that OSS may modulate ROS levels, allowing intracellular signalling for capacitation to occur while preventing higher levels that could trigger apoptosis.

PMID: 27491678 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Protective Effects of Quercetin on Selected Oxidative Biomarkers in Bovine Spermatozoa Subjected to Ferrous Ascorbate.

Protective Effects of Quercetin on Selected Oxidative Biomarkers in Bovine Spermatozoa Subjected to Ferrous Ascorbate.

Reprod Domest Anim. 2016 Jun 5;

Authors: Tvrdá E, Tušimová E, Kováčik A, Paál D, Libová Ľ, Lukáč N

Abstract
Quercetin (QUE) is a natural flavonol-type flavonoid with antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-aggregatory properties. It is also a powerful reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger and chelating agent. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of QUE to reverse ROS-mediated alterations to the motility, viability and intracellular antioxidant profile of bovine spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were washed out of fresh bovine semen, suspended in 2.9% sodium citrate and subjected to QUE treatment (7.5, 25, 50 and 100 μmol/l) in the presence or absence of a pro-oxidant, that is ferrous ascorbate (FeAA; 150 μmol/l FeSO4 and 750 μmol/l ascorbic acid) during a 6-h in vitro culture. Spermatozoa motion characteristics were assessed using the SpermVision computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) system. Cell viability was examined with the metabolic activity (MTT) assay, ROS generation was quantified via luminometry, and the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test was applied to quantify the intracellular superoxide formation. Cell lysates were prepared at the end of the in vitro culture to investigate the intracellular activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as well as the concentrations of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). FeAA treatment led to a reduced sperm motility (p < 0.001), viability (p < 0.001) and decreased the antioxidant parameters of the sperm samples (p < 0.001) but increased the ROS generation (p < 0.001), superoxide production (p < 0.001) and lipid peroxidation (p < 0.001). QUE administration resulted in a preservation of the spermatozoa vitality and antioxidant characteristics (p < 0.01 with respect to the enzymatic antioxidants, p < 0.001 in relation to GSH) with a concentration range of 50-100 μmol/l QUE revealing to be the most effective. Our results suggest that QUE exhibits significant ROS-scavenging and metal-chelating properties which may prevent spermatozoa alterations caused by ROS, and preserve the functionality of male reproductive cells.

PMID: 27265116 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Flow Cytometric Chromosomal Sex Sorting of Stallion Spermatozoa Induces Oxidative Stress on Mitochondria and Genomic DNA.

Flow Cytometric Chromosomal Sex Sorting of Stallion Spermatozoa Induces Oxidative Stress on Mitochondria and Genomic DNA.

Reprod Domest Anim. 2015 Nov 22;

Authors: Balao da Silva CM, Ortega-Ferrusola C, Morrell JM, Rodriguez Martínez H, Peña FJ

Abstract
To date, the only repeatable method to select spermatozoa for chromosomal sex is the Beltsville sorting technology using flow cytometry. Improvement of this technology in the equine species requires increasing awareness of the modifications that the sorting procedure induces on sperm intactness. Oxidative stress is regarded as the major damaging phenomenon, and increasing evidence regards handling of spermatozoa – including sex sorting – as basic ground for oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to disclose whether the flow cytometric sorting procedure increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and to identify if ROS production relates to DNA damage in sorted spermatozoa using specific flow cytometry-based assays. After sorting, oxidative stress increased from 26% to 33% in pre- and post-incubation controls, to 46% after sex sorting (p < 0.05). Proportions of DNA fragmentation index post-sorting were approximately 10% higher (31.3%); an effect apparently conduced via oxidative DNA damage as revealed by the oxyDNA assay. The probable origin of this increased oxidative stress owes the removal of enough seminal plasma due to the unphysiological sperm extension, alongside a deleterious effect of high pressure on mitochondria during the sorting procedure.

PMID: 26592367 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Signalling Events and Associated Pathways Related to the Mammalian Sperm Capacitation.

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Signalling Events and Associated Pathways Related to the Mammalian Sperm Capacitation.

Reprod Domest Anim. 2015 Aug 21;

Authors: Gangwar DK, Atreja SK

Abstract
Capacitation is a biological phenomenon occurring prior to fertilization and is a multiple event process. Many physiological and biochemical changes takes place during the process; these changes are related to lipid composition of membrane, intracellular modulation of ion concentration, protein phosphorylation, sperm movement and membrane permeability. These events occur when the sperm is exposed to the new environment of ion concentration in the female reproductive tract. Ions such as bicarbonate and calcium facilitate capacitation by activating adenylyl cyclase, thus initiating protein kinase A (PKA) signalling cascade. Extracellular-regulated kinase pathway is activated by ligand binding to the membrane receptors and intracellular activation by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Activation of these pathways leads to the phosphorylation of different proteins, which is associated with events such as capacitation, hyperactivation and acrosome reaction that are essential for successful fertilization. Extensive studies were carried out on protein phosphorylation in relation to capacitation, but its role still remains ambiguous.

PMID: 26294224 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

New Approaches to Boar Semen Evaluation, Processing and Improvement.

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New Approaches to Boar Semen Evaluation, Processing and Improvement.

Reprod Domest Anim. 2015 Jul;50 Suppl 2:11-9

Authors: Sutovsky P

Abstract
The improvement of boar reproductive performance may be the next frontier in reproductive management of swine herd in Unites States, facilitated by better understanding of boar sperm function and by the introduction of new advanced instrumentation in the andrology field. Objective single ejaculate evaluation and individual boar fertility prediction may be possible by introducing automated flow cytometric semen analysis with vital stains (e.g. acrosomal integrity and mito-potential), DNA fragmentation analysis and biomarkers (ubiquitin, PAWP, ALOX15, aggresome) associated with normal or defective sperm phenotypes. Measurement of sperm-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a helpful indicator of normal semen sample. Semen ROS levels could be managed by the addition of ROS-scavenging antioxidants. Alternative energy regeneration substrates and sperm stimulants such as inorganic pyrophosphate and caffeine could increase sperm lifespan in extended semen and within the female reproductive system. Such technology could be combined with timed sperm release in the female reproductive system after artificial insemination. Sperm phenotype analysis by the image-based flow cytometry will go hand in hand with the advancement of swine genomics, linking aberrant sperm phenotype to the fertility influencing gene polymorphisms. Finally, poor-quality ejaculates could be rescued and acceptable ejaculates improved by semen purification methods such as the nanoparticle-based semen purification and magnetic-activated sperm sorting. Altogether, these scientific and technological advances could benefit swine industry, provided that the challenges of new technology adoption, dissemination and cost reduction are met.

PMID: 26174914 [PubMed – in process]

The Control of Reactive Oxygen Species Influences Porcine Oocyte In Vitro Maturation.

The Control of Reactive Oxygen Species Influences Porcine Oocyte In Vitro Maturation.

Reprod Domest Anim. 2014 Dec 17;

Authors: Alvarez G, Morado S, Soto M, Dalvit G, Cetica P

Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of varying intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during oocyte in vitro maturation with enzymatic ROS production systems (xanthine + xanthine oxidase or xanthine + xanthine oxidase + catalase), scavenger systems (catalase or superoxide dismutase + catalase) or cysteine on porcine oocyte maturation. Oocyte ROS levels showed an increase when H2 O2 or O2 ∙(-) production systems were added to the culture medium (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the presence of ROS scavengers in the maturation medium did not modify oocyte ROS levels compared with the control after 48 h of maturation, but the addition of cysteine induced a decrease in oocyte ROS levels (p < 0.05). The ROS production systems used in this work did not modified the percentage of oocyte nuclear maturation, but increased the decondensation of sperm head (p < 0.05) and decreased the pronuclear formation (p < 0.05). In turn, the addition of O2 ∙(-) and H2 O2 scavenging systems during in vitro maturation did not modify the percentage of oocytes reaching metaphase II nor the oocytes with decondensed sperm head or pronuclei after fertilization. However, both parameters increased in the presence of cysteine (p < 0.05). The exogenous generation of O2 ∙(-) and H2 O2 during oocyte in vitro maturation would not affect nuclear maturation or later sperm penetration, but most of the spermatozoa cannot progress to form the pronuclei after fusion with the oocyte. The decrease in endogenous ROS levels by the addition of cysteine would improve pronuclear formation after sperm penetration.

PMID: 25522082 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Current status of freeze-drying technology to preserve domestic animals sperm.

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Current status of freeze-drying technology to preserve domestic animals sperm.

Reprod Domest Anim. 2014 Oct;49 Suppl 4:72-81

Authors: Gil L, Olaciregui M, Luño V, Malo C, González N, Martínez F

Abstract
In recent years, there has been an increased interest in new preservation techniques that facilitate sperm storage and distribution, with freeze-drying (FD) having been proposed as an alternative method for sperm preservation and maintenance of genetic resources in different animal species. FD is a method in which frozen material is dried by sublimation of ice, thereby involving a direct transition from a solid (ice) to a vapour (gas) phase. One of the main advantages of FD is that nitrogen and dry ice are no longer required for the storage and shipment of frozen sperm, which can be stored at room temperature or 4°C, thereby resulting in enormous reductions in storage and shipping costs. Unlike sperm cryopreserved after gradual freezing, the sperm membrane may be further damaged by both snap-freezing and drying stresses during the FD procedure. As mammalian spermatozoa lose their motility, viability and, at least partially, their DNA integrity when freeze-dried, they must be microinjected into an oocyte by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Although the efficiency of ICSI is limited when freeze-dried spermatozoa are used, embryos and live offspring can be produced. DNA fragmentation in freeze-dried spermatozoa is one of the main causes of failure of embryonic development and successful pregnancy. In this regard, it has been suggested that endonucleases are among the leading causes of DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa along with oxidative stress caused by the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Many factors influence the FD process, and it is not clear how FD affects specific components of sperm from different animal species. As such, a sound understanding of the FD process would result in increased production of embryos and/or live offspring. The aim of this review was to study the various stages and techniques used in the FD process and to further evaluate the results obtained.

PMID: 25277435 [PubMed – in process]