Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training for improving reproductive function in infertile men: a randomized controlled trial.

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Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training for improving reproductive function in infertile men: a randomized controlled trial.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017 Aug 18;:

Authors: Hajizadeh Maleki B, Tartibian B

Abstract
This randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the effects of 24 weeks of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on seminal markers of inflammation and oxidative stress as well as markers of male reproductive function and reproductive performance in infertile patients. Of a total of 1296 infertile patients (aged 25-40 years) who were screened, 556 were randomly assigned to exercise (EX, n = 278) and non-exercise (NON-EX, n = 278) groups. Semen samples were taken before, 12 and 24 weeks as well as 7 and 30 days post intervention. The training program reduced seminal proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] and markers of oxidative stress [reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-Isoprostane] (P < 0.05). Additional improvements were also achieved in seminal antioxidant defense system [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)] (P < 0.05). Training-induced changes in inflammation and oxidative stress status correlated with favorable improvements in semen parameters, sperm DNA integrity, and pregnancy rate (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these results support the evidence for the favorable effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training in male factor infertility.

PMID: 28820950 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Antioxidant Effect of Xanthan Gum on Ram Sperm after Freezing and Thawing.

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Antioxidant Effect of Xanthan Gum on Ram Sperm after Freezing and Thawing.

Cryo Letters. 2017 May/Jun;38(3):187-193

Authors: Gastal GD, Silva EF, Mion B, Varela Junior AS, Rosa CE, Corcini CD, Mondadori RG, Vieira AD, Bianchi I, Lucia T

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Xanthan gum is used as thickener in media to preserve food products, having cryoprotectant and antioxidant properties that may be relevant for sperm cryopreservation.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of adding xanthan gum to freezing extenders on post-thawing quality and oxidant activity of ram sperm.
METHODS: Ejaculates from seven rams extended TRIS-egg yolk-glycerol were split in three treatments including xanthan gum (0.15%; 0.20%; and 0.25%) and a control with no xanthan gum.
RESULTS: After thawing, motility and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with 0.20% and 0.25% xanthan gum were lower than for the control (P < 0.05), but mitochondrial functionality and integrity of membrane, acrosome and DNA did not differ (P > 0.05). Xanthan gum at 0.20% and 0.25% may be an efficient antioxidant for frozen-thawed ram sperm, due to the reduction in ROS production.

PMID: 28767741 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Enhancement of sperm motility and viability by turmeric by-product dietary supplementation in roosters.

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Enhancement of sperm motility and viability by turmeric by-product dietary supplementation in roosters.

Anim Reprod Sci. 2017 Aug 30;:

Authors: Yan W, Kanno C, Oshima E, Kuzuma Y, Kim SW, Bai H, Takahashi M, Yanagawa Y, Nagano M, Wakamatsu JI, Kawahara M

Abstract
Improving sperm motility and viability are major goals to improve efficiency in the poultry industry. In this study, the effects of supplemental dietary turmeric by-product (TBP) from commercial turmeric production on sperm motility, viability, and antioxidative status were examined in domestic fowl. Mature Rhode Island Red roosters were divided into two groups – controls (groupC) without TBP administration and test subjects (groupT) fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.8g of TBP/day in a temperature-controlled rearing facility (Experiment 1) and 1.6g/day under heat stress (Experiment 2) for 4 weeks. In Experiment 1, TBP dietary supplementation increased the sperm motility variables straight-line velocity, curvilinear velocity, and linearity based on a computer-assisted semen analysis, 2 weeks following TBP supplementation. In Experiment 2, using flow cytometry, sperm viability at 3 and 4 weeks following TBP supplementation was greater in Group T than C, and this increase was consistent with a reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production at 2 and 4 weeks. The results of both experiments clearly demonstrate that dietary supplementation with TBP enhanced sperm motility in the controlled-temperature conditions as well as sperm viability, and reduced ROS generation when heat stress prevailed. Considering its potential application in a range of environments, TBP may serve as an economical and potent antioxidant to improve rooster fertility.

PMID: 28869111 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Effects of sodium pyruvate on viability, synthesis of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and DNA integrity of cryopreserved bovine sperm.

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Effects of sodium pyruvate on viability, synthesis of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and DNA integrity of cryopreserved bovine sperm.

Anim Reprod Sci. 2017 Aug 07;:

Authors: Korkmaz F, Malama E, Siuda M, Leiding C, Bollwein H

Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine effects of sodium pyruvate on viability as well as on synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and DNA integrity of cryopreserved bovine sperm. In each of 23 Simmental AI bulls three ejaculates were collected. In a split sample design ejaculates were diluted by using Triladyl(®) extender without and with the addition of 5mM sodium pyruvate. Both aliquots were equilibrated for 24h before freezing. Frozen sperm samples were thawed, and examined immediately after thawing (0h) as well as after 3, 6, 12, and 24h incubation at 37°C. The percentages of rapidly motile sperm (RMS), plasma membrane and acrosome intact sperm (PMAI), sperm with a high mitochondrial membrane potential (HMMP), amounts of ROS synthesis (dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH), CellROX Deep Red Reagent(®) probe (CellROX)) and lipid peroxidation of sperm (LPO) and percentage of sperm with a high degree of DNA fragmentation (%DFI) were determined. Overall, sperm diluted with the extender containing sodium pyruvate showed higher levels of RMS, PMAI and HMMP, CellROX and lower %DFI values (P<0.001) compared to sperm frozen in the extender without sodium pyruvate. However, there was no effect (P>0.05) of sodium pyruvate on LPO and DCFH. The results of this study show that the addition of sodium pyruvate to the semen extender improved the viability as well as DNA integrity of cryopreserved sperm and did not affect their lipid peroxidation, although it increased the synthesis of some ROS.

PMID: 28864278 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Melatonin ameliorates restraint stress-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in testicular cells via NF-κB/iNOS and Nrf2/ HO-1 signaling pathway.

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Melatonin ameliorates restraint stress-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in testicular cells via NF-κB/iNOS and Nrf2/ HO-1 signaling pathway.

Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 29;7(1):9599

Authors: Guo Y, Sun J, Li T, Zhang Q, Bu S, Wang Q, Lai D

Abstract
Decline in semen quality has become a global public health concern. Psychological stress is common in the current modern society and is associated with semen decline. Increasing evidence demonstrated that melatonin has anti-apoptotic and antioxidant functions. Whether melatonin can ameliorate the damage in testes induced by psychological stress has never been investigated. Here, a mouse model of restraint stress demonstrated that melatonin normalized the sperm density decline, testicular cells apoptosis, and testicular oxidative stress in stressed male mice. Melatonin decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) activities, and downregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) activities in stressed mice testes. Furthermore, melatonin reduced the stress-induced activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway by decreasing the phosphorylation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα) and p65 nuclear translocation. In addition, melatonin upregulated the expression of anti-oxidant proteins including nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Meanwhile, in vitro studies also demonstrated melatonin could reduce oxidative apoptosis of testicular cells. Collectively, melatonin mitigated psychological stress-induced spermatogenic damage, which provides evidence for melatonin as a therapy against sperm impairment associated with psychological stress.

PMID: 28851995 [PubMed – in process]

Effect of in vitro selenium supplementation on sperm quality in asthenoteratozoospermic men.

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Effect of in vitro selenium supplementation on sperm quality in asthenoteratozoospermic men.

Andrologia. 2017 Aug 06;:

Authors: Ghafarizadeh AA, Vaezi G, Shariatzadeh MA, Malekirad AA

Abstract
Sperm DNA damage, excessive oxidative stress and decrease in motility ‎may lead to low fertilisation or poor‎ assisted reproductive techniques outcomes in asthenoteratozoospermic ‎men. Selenium was considered as essential element for male reproductive functions. Selenium has important role in enzymatic process for elimination of excessive reactive oxygen species and helps to maintain membrane integrity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of selenium supplementation on sperm quality, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential and membrane lipid peroxidation during sperm sampling in vitro at different times. In this experimental study, semen samples were collected from 50 asthenoteratozoospermic men. Samples were divided into two groups as control group and test group (incubated with 2 μg/ml selenium at 37°C for 2, 4 and 6 hr). Motility and viability were assessed based on WHO 2010 criteria. Mitochondrial membrane potential, sperm DNA fragmentation and malondialdehyde levels were evaluated in each group. Results revealed that motility, viability and mitochondrial membrane potential were significantly higher in the test group (p < .05). Also malondialdehyde levels were significantly lower in the test group (p < .03). DNA fragmentation significantly decreased in the test group after 6 hr of incubation (p < .02). In conclusion, in vitro selenium supplementation may protect spermatozoa from maltreatment effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during sperm sampling via keeping enzymatic and antioxidant process in optimum condition.

PMID: 28782302 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Reactive oxygen species as mediators of sperm capacitation and pathological damage.

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Reactive oxygen species as mediators of sperm capacitation and pathological damage.

Mol Reprod Dev. 2017 Jul 27;:

Authors: Aitken RJ

Abstract
Oxidative stress plays a major role in the life and death of mammalian spermatozoa. These gametes are professional generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which appear to derive from three potential sources: sperm mitochondria, cytosolic L-amino acid oxidases, and plasma membrane nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases. The oxidative stress created via these sources appears to play a significant role in driving the physiological changes associated with sperm capacitation through the stimulation of a cyclic adenosine monophosphate/Protein kinase A phosphorylation cascade, including the activation of Extracellular signal regulated kinase-like proteins, massive up-regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation in the sperm tail, as well as the induction of sterol oxidation. When generated in excess, however, ROS can induce lipid peroxidation that, in turn, disrupts membrane characteristics that are critical for the maintenance of sperm function, including the capacity to fertilize an egg. Furthermore, the lipid aldehydes generated as a consequence of lipid peroxidation bind to proteins in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, triggering yet more ROS generation in a self-perpetuating cycle. The high levels of oxidative stress created as a result of this process ultimately damage the DNA in the sperm nucleus; indeed, DNA damage in the male germ line appears to be predominantly induced oxidatively, reflecting the vulnerability of these cells to such stress. Extensive evaluation of antioxidants that protect the spermatozoa against oxidative stress while permitting the normal reduction-oxidation regulation of sperm capacitation is therefore currently being undertaken, and has already proven efficacious in animal models. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 28749007 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Antioxidants protect proteins’ anchorage to the bilayer by improving plasma membrane integrity of ram spermatozoa during liquid preservation in a soya lecithin-based diluent.

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Antioxidants protect proteins’ anchorage to the bilayer by improving plasma membrane integrity of ram spermatozoa during liquid preservation in a soya lecithin-based diluent.

Reprod Domest Anim. 2017 Jul 25;:

Authors: Paul RK, Kumar D, Naqvi S

Abstract
Antioxidants are known to prevent the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated peroxidative damage to the membrane lipids during hypothermic storage of mammalian spermatozoa. We hypothesized here that ROS also affect the lipid-protein interactions, thereby diminishing the membrane’s integrity and proteins’ anchorage to the bilayer. Antioxidants prevent these damages by scavenging the ROS. Ejaculates from Patanwadi rams were pooled after subjective evaluation and centrifuged using Percoll(®) . Sperm pellet was resuspended in soya lecithin-Tris-fructose diluent (400 × 10(6)  cells/ml) containing either antioxidants (100 IU/ml catalase + 10 mM reduced glutathione) or no antioxidant. Aliquots were chilled to 5°C in a cabinet and stored in a refrigerator at 3-5°C for 72 hr. Sperm motility, viability, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) were performed at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hr. Sperm proteins extracted with 0.5% Triton X-100 were resolved by SDS-PAGE and quantified using Quantity One software (Bio-Rad, USA). The rapid motility, linearity and straight-line velocity (VSL) were found significantly (p < .05) higher in the antioxidant-treated group compared to the control at 48 hr of storage. Sperm viability was found comparable between the groups. Higher HOST response and lower LPO were found in the antioxidant-treated sample compared to the control both at 48 and at 72 hr. Overall, the proteins P1 (106.09 kDa), P2 (87.00 kDa) and P4 (51.14 kDa) were lower (p < .05) in the sperm extract of antioxidant-treated group compared to the control. The content of P4 (51.14 kDa) in sperm extract was found to increase (p < .05) earlier (48 vs. 72 hr) in the control group compared to the antioxidant-treated group. Altogether, the results suggested that antioxidants reduced LPO in spermatozoa, resulting in higher sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and protection of proteins’ anchorage to the plasma membrane at 48 and 72 hr of storage.

PMID: 28741693 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Effects of Fatty Acids on Intracellular [Ca2+], Mitochondrial Uncoupling and Apoptosis in Rat Pachytene Spermatocytes and Round Spermatids.

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Effects of Fatty Acids on Intracellular [Ca2+], Mitochondrial Uncoupling and Apoptosis in Rat Pachytene Spermatocytes and Round Spermatids.

PLoS One. 2016;11(7):e0158518

Authors: Paillamanque J, Madrid C, Carmona EM, Osses N, Moreno RD, Oresti GM, Pino JA, Reyes JG

Abstract
The aim of this work was to explore the ability of free arachidonic acid, palmitic acid and the unsaturated fatty acids oleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid to modify calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial function in rat pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids. In contrast to palmitic acid, unsaturated fatty acids produced significant increases in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in both cell types. Increases were fatty acid specific, dose-dependent and different for each cell type. The arachidonic acid effects on [Ca2+]i were higher in spermatids than in spermatocytes and persisted when residual extracellular Ca2+ was chelated by EGTA, indicating that the increase in [Ca2+]i originated from release of intracellular calcium stores. At the concentrations required for these increases, unsaturated fatty acids produced no significant changes in the plasma membrane potential of or non-specific permeability in spermatogenic cells. For the case of arachidonic acid, the [Ca2+]i increases were not caused by its metabolic conversion to eicosanoids or anandamide; thus we attribute this effect to the fatty acid itself. As estimated with fluorescent probes, unsaturated fatty acids did not affect the intracellular pH but were able to induce a progressive decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. The association of this decrease with reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production strongly suggests that unsaturated fatty acids induced mitochondrial uncoupling. This effect was stronger in spermatids than in spermatocytes. As a late event, arachidonic acid induced caspase 3 activation in a dose-dependent manner both in the absence and presence of external Ca2+. The concurrent but differential effects of unsaturated fatty acids on [Ca2+]i and mitochondrial functions are additional manifestations of the metabolic changes that germ cells undergo during their differentiation.

PMID: 27428262 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Bisphenol A induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in mice testes: Modulation by selenium.

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Bisphenol A induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in mice testes: Modulation by selenium.

Andrologia. 2017 Jul 18;:

Authors: Kaur S, Saluja M, Bansal MP

Abstract
Spermatogenesis, a highly coordinated process, is prone to environmental insults which may lead to impaired spermatogenesis or, at worst, infertility. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known global environmental toxicant and a ubiquitous oestrogenic chemical. This study evaluated the role of selenium (0.5 ppm sodium selenite/kg diet) on spermatogenesis after BPA treatment in different groups of male BALB/c mice: control, selenium, BPA and selenium+BPA. Markers of oxidative stress and apoptosis were evaluated in testis after BPA treatment. Significant decrease in sperm concentration and motility and increased reactive oxygen species(ROS) and LPO levels were seen in BPA group. Histopathological changes revealed extensive vacuolisation, lumen devoid of spermatozoa and decreased germ cell count, confirmed by testicular germ cell count studies. TUNEL assay for apoptosis showed increased number of TUNEL-positive germ cells in BPA group with increased percentage apoptotic index. However, in Se+BPA group, histopathological studies revealed systematic array of all germ cells, preserved basement membrane with relatively less vacuolisation, improved sperm parameters and ROS and LPO levels and decreased number of TUNEL-positive germ cells. These results clearly demonstrate the role of selenium in ameliorating oxidative stress and apoptosis induced upon BPA treatment in mice and can be further used as therapeutic target in male infertility.

PMID: 28719015 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]