Enhancement of sperm motility and viability by turmeric by-product dietary supplementation in roosters.

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Enhancement of sperm motility and viability by turmeric by-product dietary supplementation in roosters.

Anim Reprod Sci. 2017 Aug 30;:

Authors: Yan W, Kanno C, Oshima E, Kuzuma Y, Kim SW, Bai H, Takahashi M, Yanagawa Y, Nagano M, Wakamatsu JI, Kawahara M

Abstract
Improving sperm motility and viability are major goals to improve efficiency in the poultry industry. In this study, the effects of supplemental dietary turmeric by-product (TBP) from commercial turmeric production on sperm motility, viability, and antioxidative status were examined in domestic fowl. Mature Rhode Island Red roosters were divided into two groups - controls (groupC) without TBP administration and test subjects (groupT) fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.8g of TBP/day in a temperature-controlled rearing facility (Experiment 1) and 1.6g/day under heat stress (Experiment 2) for 4 weeks. In Experiment 1, TBP dietary supplementation increased the sperm motility variables straight-line velocity, curvilinear velocity, and linearity based on a computer-assisted semen analysis, 2 weeks following TBP supplementation. In Experiment 2, using flow cytometry, sperm viability at 3 and 4 weeks following TBP supplementation was greater in Group T than C, and this increase was consistent with a reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production at 2 and 4 weeks. The results of both experiments clearly demonstrate that dietary supplementation with TBP enhanced sperm motility in the controlled-temperature conditions as well as sperm viability, and reduced ROS generation when heat stress prevailed. Considering its potential application in a range of environments, TBP may serve as an economical and potent antioxidant to improve rooster fertility.

PMID: 28869111 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Effects of sodium pyruvate on viability, synthesis of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and DNA integrity of cryopreserved bovine sperm.

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Effects of sodium pyruvate on viability, synthesis of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and DNA integrity of cryopreserved bovine sperm.

Anim Reprod Sci. 2017 Aug 07;:

Authors: Korkmaz F, Malama E, Siuda M, Leiding C, Bollwein H

Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine effects of sodium pyruvate on viability as well as on synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and DNA integrity of cryopreserved bovine sperm. In each of 23 Simmental AI bulls three ejaculates were collected. In a split sample design ejaculates were diluted by using Triladyl(®) extender without and with the addition of 5mM sodium pyruvate. Both aliquots were equilibrated for 24h before freezing. Frozen sperm samples were thawed, and examined immediately after thawing (0h) as well as after 3, 6, 12, and 24h incubation at 37°C. The percentages of rapidly motile sperm (RMS), plasma membrane and acrosome intact sperm (PMAI), sperm with a high mitochondrial membrane potential (HMMP), amounts of ROS synthesis (dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH), CellROX Deep Red Reagent(®) probe (CellROX)) and lipid peroxidation of sperm (LPO) and percentage of sperm with a high degree of DNA fragmentation (%DFI) were determined. Overall, sperm diluted with the extender containing sodium pyruvate showed higher levels of RMS, PMAI and HMMP, CellROX and lower %DFI values (P<0.001) compared to sperm frozen in the extender without sodium pyruvate. However, there was no effect (P>0.05) of sodium pyruvate on LPO and DCFH. The results of this study show that the addition of sodium pyruvate to the semen extender improved the viability as well as DNA integrity of cryopreserved sperm and did not affect their lipid peroxidation, although it increased the synthesis of some ROS.

PMID: 28864278 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The effect of antioxidants on sperm motility activation in the Booroolong frog.

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The effect of antioxidants on sperm motility activation in the Booroolong frog.

Anim Reprod Sci. 2017 May 20;:

Authors: Keogh LM, Byrne PG, Silla AJ

Abstract
Motile sperm can generate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) post activation, and ROS can quickly accumulate to levels that impair motility and fertilising ability. The addition of antioxidants to sperm suspensions has been suggested as a means of reducing oxidative stress and enhancing sperm motility during and after sperm storage. Despite this, very few studies have attempted to experimentally test the effects of antioxidants on sperm motility activation in animals that use an external mode of fertilisation, espcially in amphibians. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin C and vitamin E on sperm motility activation in the Booroolong frog. Spermatozoa were activated in media containing either vitamin C (0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25μgμL(-1)) or vitamin E (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 1.50, 1.75μgμL(-1)). Sperm performance parameters (percent motility and velocity) were assessed using CASA at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6h post-activation. Contrary to expectations, vitamin C supplementation was detrimental to sperm motility across all tested concentrations, while vitamin E had no effect. Further investigation on the endogenous antioxidant system of anuran sperm is required to ascertain whether alternative antioxidants may be more suitable at reducing ROS produced during sperm activation and improving sperm motility activation in vitro.

PMID: 28600162 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Curcumin has protective and antioxidant properties on bull spermatozoa subjected to induced oxidative stress.

Curcumin has protective and antioxidant properties on bull spermatozoa subjected to induced oxidative stress.

Anim Reprod Sci. 2016 Jun 21;

Authors: Tvrdá E, Tušimová E, Kováčik A, Paál D, Greifová H, Abdramanov A, Lukáč N

Abstract
Over the past decades, there has been an emphasis on assessment of the use of natural compounds in the prevention or repair of oxidative injury to spermatozoa. Curcumin (CUR) is a natural phenol with powerful antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to examine if CUR could reverse reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated alterations to the motility, viability and intracellular antioxidant profile of bull spermatozoa subjected to a prooxidant (i.e., ferrous ascorbate - FeAA). Spermatozoa were washed from recently collected semen samples, suspended in 2.9% sodium citrate and subjected to CUR treatment (5, 10, 25 and 50μmol/L) in the presence or absence of FeAA (150μmol/L FeSO4 and 750μmol/L ascorbic acid) during a 6h in vitro culture. Spermatozoa motility characteristics were assessed using the SpermVision computer-aided spermatozoa analysis (CASA) system. Cell viability was examined with the metabolic activity (MTT) assay, ROS generation was quantified using luminometry and the nitroblue-tetrazolium (NBT) test was used to quantify the intracellular superoxide formation. Cell lysates were prepared at the end of the culture to assess the intracellular activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as well as the concentrations of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Treatment with FeAA led to a reduced spermatozoa motility (P<0.001), viability (P<0.001) and decreased the antioxidant characteristics of the samples (P<0.001) but increased the ROS generation (P<0.001), superoxide production (P<0.001) and lipid peroxidation (P<0.001). The CUR treatment led to a preservation of spermatozoa motion (P<0.001), mitochondrial activity (P<0.001) and antioxidant characteristics (P<0.05 with SOD and GSH; P<0.01 with CAT and GPx), revealing the concentration range of 25-50μmol/L CUR to be the most effective for sustaining spermatozoa viability. Data from the present study suggest that CUR exhibits significant protective and ROS-scavenging characteristics which may prevent oxidative insults to spermatozoa and thus preserve the functional activity of male gametes.

PMID: 27377223 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Antioxidant effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts on the male reproductive function of boars and guinea pigs.

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Antioxidant effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts on the male reproductive function of boars and guinea pigs.

Anim Reprod Sci. 2016 Apr 2;

Authors: Yun SJ, Bae GS, Park JH, Song TH, Choi A, Ryu BY, Pang MG, Kim EJ, Yoon M, Chang MB

Abstract
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts (cWGRE) on the sperm of boars and the reproductive system of guinea pigs. Firstly, semen collected from boars (n=10) were incubated in 38°C for 1h with xanthine and xanthine oxidase to generate ROS. The cWGRE was added to the sperm culture system to test its antioxidant effect on the boar sperm. The amount of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) was measured by a chemiluminescence assay using luminol. The results indicated that the addition of cWGRE to boar sperm culture inhibited xanthine and xanthine oxidase-induced ROS concentrations. Treatment with cWGRE also had a positive effect on maintaining sperm motility. Effects of cWGRE administration on vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs were further investigated. Hartley guinea pigs (n=25) at 8 weeks of age were randomly divided into five groups. With the exception of the positive control group, each group was fed vitamin C-deficient feed for 21days (d). Respective groups were also orally administered cWGRE, ginseng extract, or mixed ginsenosides for 21 days. In comparison to the control group, oral administration of cWGRE reduced (P<0.05) amount of lipid peroxidation and increased (P<0.05) both glutathione peroxidase concentrations and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. In addition, administration of cWGRE induced increases (P<0.05) in body weight, testosterone concentrations, and spermatid populations. The results of the present study support our hypothesis that cWGRE has positive effects on male reproductive functions via suppression of ROS production.

PMID: 27068520 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Liquid storage of equine semen: Assessing the effect of d-penicillamine on longevity of ejaculated and epididymal stallion sperm.

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Liquid storage of equine semen: Assessing the effect of d-penicillamine on longevity of ejaculated and epididymal stallion sperm.

Anim Reprod Sci. 2015 Jun 19;

Authors: Brogan PT, Beitsma M, Henning H, Gadella BM, Stout TA

Abstract
Short-term storage of equine sperm at 5°C in an extender containing milk and/or egg yolk components is common practice in the equine breeding industry. Sperm motility, viability, DNA integrity and, consequently, fertilizing ability decline over time, partly due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. We investigated whether adding the anti-oxidant d-penicillamine to a commercial milk/egg yolk extender delayed the decrease in semen quality. Semen was recovered on four consecutive days from eight 3-year old Warmblood stallions. On day 5, seven of the stallions were castrated and sperm recovered from the caudae epididymides. Ejaculated samples were split, and one portion was centrifuged and re-suspended to reduce seminal plasma content. All samples were diluted to 50millionsperm/ml and divided into two portions, one of which was supplemented with 0.5mM d-penicillamine. After 48h, 96h, 144h and 192h storage, sperm motility was assessed by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA), viability by SYBR14/PI staining, and DNA integrity using the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). d-Penicillamine had no effect on motility of ejaculated sperm (P>0.05) but reduced total and progressive motility of epididymal sperm. Sperm chromatin integrity was not influenced by storage time, seminal plasma or d-penicillamine. In short, adding d-penicillamine to a commercial semen extender was neither beneficial nor detrimental to the maintenance of quality in ejaculated semen stored at 5°C. The negative effect on motility of epididymal sperm may reflect differences in (membrane) physiology of spermatozoa that have not been exposed to seminal plasma.

PMID: 26130601 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Missense mutation in glutathione-S-transferase M1 gene is associated with sperm motility and ATP content in frozen-thawed semen of Holstein-Friesian bulls.

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Missense mutation in glutathione-S-transferase M1 gene is associated with sperm motility and ATP content in frozen-thawed semen of Holstein-Friesian bulls.

Anim Reprod Sci. 2015 Jun 6;

Authors: Hering DM, Lecewicz M, Kordan W, Majewska A, Kaminski S

Abstract
Glutathione-S-transferase genes (GSTs) encode enzymes that are involved in detoxification and neutralization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in male reproductive system and play protective role during spermatogenesis. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether C/G missense mutation (rs135955605) within glutathione-S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) gene is associated with selected parameters of frozen-thawed semen in 309 Holstein-Friesian bulls. Single nucleotide substitution C/G was identified by amplification of GSTM1 gene fragment followed be digestion with restriction enzyme DdeI. Bulls with GG genotype were the most frequent (67.96%), in comparison to CC (2.59%) and GC (29.45%). Significant associations were found between GSTM1 genotypes and ATP content and total sperm motility. Bulls with GG genotype had the highest values for both traits. Rare variant C of GSTM1 was associated with significant decrease of sperm motility and ATP content. Our results demonstrate that C/G missense mutation within GSTM1 gene is involved in bull sperm quality.

PMID: 26091956 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Enzymatic scavengers in the epididymal fluid: Comparison between pony and miniature breed stallions.

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Enzymatic scavengers in the epididymal fluid: Comparison between pony and miniature breed stallions.

Anim Reprod Sci. 2014 Nov 4;151(3-4):164-168

Authors: Bustamante-Filho IC, Rosa AP, Van der Linden LS, Pederzolli CD, Neves AP, Dutra-Filho CS, Jobim MI, Mattos RC

Abstract
The use of stallion semen collected from cauda epididymis for AI has increased due to the new protocols available for cryopreservation. Preserving the genetic material from valuable males that suffer sudden death or other events that prematurely end the stallion's reproductive life is an important strategy for Stud breeding management. While protecting spermatozoa from oxidative stress and infectious agents, the epididymis promotes the enhancement of sperm cell morphology and changes in membrane protein profile, increasing its fertility potential. The epididymal fluid must be a balanced redox environment to allow sperm preservation and protein-protein and protein-lipids interactions to quantify. The aim of this study was quantify the enzymatic ROS scavengers in epididymal fluid of pony and miniature breed stallions. Epididymides from 8 pony stallions and 12 miniature breed stallions were dissected and fluid from caput, corpus and cauda epididymis collected. Spermatozoa were separated of epididymal fluid by 2-step centrifugation. The activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured and compared between stallion groups and epididymal regions. The three enzymes were present in all epididymal regions tested, with higher activities of catalase and SOD in cauda epididymis in miniature breed stallions (P<0.05). GPx activity was higher in caput epididymis in pony stallions (P<0.05), however with no difference to fluid from cauda epididymis of both breeds. These results show a difference in antioxidant enzymatic scavengers between pony and miniature breed stallions. Also, our data confirm the protective role of cauda epididymis, preserving spermatozoa integrity from oxidative damage. As glutathione peroxidase is involved in several signaling pathways, its constant activity during epididymal transit corroborates the importance of this enzyme for spermatozoa maturation.

PMID: 25459078 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Reduction of centrifugation force in discontinuous percoll gradients increases in vitro fertilization rates without reducing bovine sperm recovery.

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Reduction of centrifugation force in discontinuous percoll gradients increases in vitro fertilization rates without reducing bovine sperm recovery.

Anim Reprod Sci. 2014 Mar 2;

Authors: Guimarães AC, Leivas FG, Santos FW, Schwengber EB, Giotto AB, Machado CI, Gonçalves CG, Folchini NP, Brum DS

Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different centrifugation forces in bovine sperm separation by discontinuous Percoll gradients for in vitro fertilization IVF. The semen samples from each bull were pooled or each bull were centrifuged separately and centrifuged in discontinuous Percoll gradients (30, 60 and 90%) at different forces: F1 (9000×g), F2 (6500×g), F3 (4500×g) and F4 (2200×g), according experiment. The sperm samples were evaluated to determine the concentration, motility, vigor, morphology, reactive oxygen species (ROS), integrity of the plasma membrane, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and embryo development were also evaluated. No difference was observed in the concentration of sperm submitted to different centrifugation forces. The total percentage of motile sperm was increased after centrifugation at F3 and F4, and the ROS production at F1 was greater than the other forces. When the bulls semen were processed individually, no significant differences were observed for the sperm quality parameters between F1 and F4, including lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, cleavage rate and average time to the first cleavage. This work demonstrated for the first time that centrifugation at 2200×g enhanced the sperm penetration and fertilization rates without reducing sperm recovery compared to the typical centrifugation force (9000×g) currently used by the commercial bovine IVF industry.

PMID: 24646635 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Equine spermatozoa stored in the epididymis for up to 96h at 4°C can be successfully cryopreserved and maintain their fertilization capacity.

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Equine spermatozoa stored in the epididymis for up to 96h at 4°C can be successfully cryopreserved and maintain their fertilization capacity.

Anim Reprod Sci. 2012 Nov 1;

Authors: Vieira LA, Gadea J, García-Vázquez FA, Avilés-López K, Matás C

Abstract
After injury or death of a valuable male, recovery of epididymal spermatozoa may be the last chance to ensure preservation of its genetic material. The objective of this research was to study the effect of sperm storage, at 4°C up to 96h, in the epididymides obtained from castrated horses and its effect on different functional sperm parameters. Aims were to study the effect of (1) sperm storage on viability and chromatin condensation; (2) pre-incubation of recovered epididymal sperm in the freezing extender, prior cryopreservation, on viability and chromatin condensation; and (3) freezing-thawing on viability, chromatin condensation, ROS generation, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and heterologous fertilization rate (ICSI and IVF using bovine oocytes) of sperm recovered from the epididymis up to 96h post castration. The average volume (720±159μL) and the concentration (6.5±0.4×10(9) spermatozoa/mL) of sperm recovered from the epididymis were not affected by storage. Sperm viability after refrigeration at 4°C for up to72h was similar (P<0.01). The effect of sperm dilution in the freezing media showed similar values up to 48h, while viability was preserved up to 72h (P<0.01). Cryopreserved spermatozoa show similar viability between different storage times. Chromatin condensation was not affected by storage time; however, incubation for 30min in freezing medium and freezing-thawing process induced an increase in the chromatin decondensation. ROS generation was not affected by storage up to 96h. Epididymal storage did not affect sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation patterns; although the pattern of phosphorylation changed to strong staining of the equatorial segment when the sperm where capacitated in sperm-TALP. Finally, successful and similar pronuclear formation (analyzed by ICSI) and in vitro penetration (evaluated with bovine zone free oocyte) was observed using cryopreserved sperm obtained from prolong epididymal storage at 4°C. In conclusion, cryopreservation of epididymal stallion sperm stored for up to 72h in the epididymis at 4°C, maintain both viability and ability to fertilize in vitro.

PMID: 23182934 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]