Bisphenol A induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in mice testes: Modulation by selenium.

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Bisphenol A induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in mice testes: Modulation by selenium.

Andrologia. 2017 Jul 18;:

Authors: Kaur S, Saluja M, Bansal MP

Abstract
Spermatogenesis, a highly coordinated process, is prone to environmental insults which may lead to impaired spermatogenesis or, at worst, infertility. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known global environmental toxicant and a ubiquitous oestrogenic chemical. This study evaluated the role of selenium (0.5 ppm sodium selenite/kg diet) on spermatogenesis after BPA treatment in different groups of male BALB/c mice: control, selenium, BPA and selenium+BPA. Markers of oxidative stress and apoptosis were evaluated in testis after BPA treatment. Significant decrease in sperm concentration and motility and increased reactive oxygen species(ROS) and LPO levels were seen in BPA group. Histopathological changes revealed extensive vacuolisation, lumen devoid of spermatozoa and decreased germ cell count, confirmed by testicular germ cell count studies. TUNEL assay for apoptosis showed increased number of TUNEL-positive germ cells in BPA group with increased percentage apoptotic index. However, in Se+BPA group, histopathological studies revealed systematic array of all germ cells, preserved basement membrane with relatively less vacuolisation, improved sperm parameters and ROS and LPO levels and decreased number of TUNEL-positive germ cells. These results clearly demonstrate the role of selenium in ameliorating oxidative stress and apoptosis induced upon BPA treatment in mice and can be further used as therapeutic target in male infertility.

PMID: 28719015 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

SN 620: Calm Before the Storm

Security Now (MP3)

This week, while waiting for news from the upcoming BlackHat & DefCon conventions, we discuss another terrific security eBook bundle offer, a Net Neutrality follow-up, a MySpace account recovery surprise, another new feature coming to Win10, the wrongheadedness of paste-blocking web forms, Australia versus the laws of math, does an implanted pacemaker meet the self-incrimination exemption?, an updated worse-case crypto-future model, it's surprising what you can find at a flea market, another example of the consumer as the product, an SQRL technology update, and some closing-the-loop feedback from our terrific listeners.

We invite you to read our show notes.

Hosts: Steve Gibson and Leo Laporte

Download or subscribe to this show at https://twit.tv/shows/security-now.

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For 16kbps versions, transcripts, and notes (including fixes), visit Steve's site: grc.com, also the home of the best disk maintenance and recovery utility ever written Spinrite 6.

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Quantitative pteridine fluorescence analysis: A possible age-grading technique for the adult stages of the blow fly Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

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Quantitative pteridine fluorescence analysis: A possible age-grading technique for the adult stages of the blow fly Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

J Insect Physiol. 2017 Apr;98:356-359

Authors: Bernhardt V, Hannig L, Kinast R, Verhoff MA, Rothweiler F, Zehner R, Amendt J

Abstract
Age estimation of adult flies could extend the possible window of time for calculating the minimal postmortem interval (PMImin) by means of entomological methods. Currently, this is done by estimating the time required by necrophagous Diptera to reach certain juvenile developmental landmarks, and the method only works until the end of metamorphosis and emergence of the adult fly. Particularly at indoor crime scenes, being able to estimate the age of trapped adult flies would be an important tool with which to extend the calculable PMI beyond the developmental period. Recently, several promising age-dependent morphological and physiological characteristics of adult insects have been investigated in medical and forensic entomology, but the results are still preliminary and restricted to a few species. We examined adults of the forensically relevant blow fly species Calliphora vicina and investigated the fluorescence levels of pteridine, a group of metabolites that accumulates in the eyes during aging. From Day 1 to Day 25 post-emergence, flies were kept at three different temperature regimes (20°C, 25°C, and fluctuating temperatures in the context of a field study) and 12:12 L:D. From Day 1 until Day 7, the fluorescence of pteridine was determined on a daily basis, and thereafter, every three days. The achieved fly age was multiplied with the relevant temperature and converted into accumulated degree-days (ADD). The fluorescence level of pteridine increased linear with increasing ADD (females: R(2)=0.777; males: R(2)=0.802). The difference between sexes was significant (p<0.001). Neither head weight nor temperature had an effect on pteridine fluorescence. Because the variation in pteridine fluorescence increased with increasing ADD, it seems favorable to combine several aging methods for more precise results. In context, we emphasize that different body parts of the same specimen can be used to analyze cuticular hydrocarbons (legs), pteridine fluorescence (head/eyes), and gonotrophic stage (female abdomen).

PMID: 28267461 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The accuracy of the anatomical method for stature estimation in Black South African females.

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The accuracy of the anatomical method for stature estimation in Black South African females.

Forensic Sci Int. 2017 Jun 12;:

Authors: Brits D, Manger PR, Bidmos MA

Abstract
The anatomical method is considered the most accurate stature estimation method, but investigation has shown that it continuously underestimates stature. This underestimation is believed to be related to the use of universal soft tissue correction factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of the soft tissue correction factors in a living population of Black South African females and to subsequently calculate a new soft tissue correction factor, specific for stature estimation in this population group. Thirty Black South African adult females voluntarily participated in this study and underwent a full body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan. Living stature was measured with a stadiometer and total skeletal height (TSH) was calculated from the MRI measurements. Stature was estimated from the TSH of each participant using Fully's (1956) [17], Raxter et al.'s (2006) [38] and Bidmos and Manger's (2012) [5] methods. Results indicated strong, statistically significant positive correlations between living and estimated statures, however, paired t-tests revealed that living stature was significantly underestimated using Fully's and Raxter et al.'s methods, while the method by Bidmos and Manger significantly overestimated stature. A lack of statistically significant correlations between soft tissue correction factors and the total skeletal height was found. Likewise, an absence of statistically significant correlations between age and the estimation error, with and without age adjustments were also observed. A new soft tissue correction factor, specific for stature estimation in Black South African females was calculated. The newly proposed regression equation presented improved stature estimation accuracies for this population group.

PMID: 28698061 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Validation and reliability of the sex estimation of the human os coxae using freely available DSP2 software for bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology.

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Validation and reliability of the sex estimation of the human os coxae using freely available DSP2 software for bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology.

Am J Phys Anthropol. 2017 Jul 17;:

Authors: Brůžek J, Santos F, Dutailly B, Murail P, Cunha E

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: A new tool for skeletal sex estimation based on measurements of the human os coxae is presented using skeletons from a metapopulation of identified adult individuals from twelve independent population samples. For reliable sex estimation, a posterior probability greater than 0.95 was considered to be the classification threshold: below this value, estimates are considered indeterminate. By providing free software, we aim to develop an even more disseminated method for sex estimation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten metric variables collected from 2,040 ossa coxa of adult subjects of known sex were recorded between 1986 and 2002 (reference sample). To test both the validity and reliability, a target sample consisting of two series of adult ossa coxa of known sex (n = 623) was used. The DSP2 software (Diagnose Sexuelle Probabiliste v2) is based on Linear Discriminant Analysis, and the posterior probabilities are calculated using an R script.
RESULTS: For the reference sample, any combination of four dimensions provides a correct sex estimate in at least 99% of cases. The percentage of individuals for whom sex can be estimated depends on the number of dimensions; for all ten variables it is higher than 90%. Those results are confirmed in the target sample.
DISCUSSION: Our posterior probability threshold of 0.95 for sex estimate corresponds to the traditional sectioning point used in osteological studies. DSP2 software is replacing the former version that should not be used anymore. DSP2 is a robust and reliable technique for sexing adult os coxae, and is also user friendly.

PMID: 28714560 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Cysteine protects rabbit spermatozoa against reactive oxygen species-induced damages.

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Cysteine protects rabbit spermatozoa against reactive oxygen species-induced damages.

PLoS One. 2017;12(7):e0181110

Authors: Zhu Z, Ren Z, Fan X, Pan Y, Lv S, Pan C, Lei A, Zeng W

Abstract
The process of cryopreservation results in over-production of reactive oxygen species, which is extremely detrimental to spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to investigate whether addition of cysteine to freezing extender would facilitate the cryosurvival of rabbit spermatozoa, and if so, how cysteine protects spermatozoa from cryodamages. Freshly ejaculated semen was diluted with Tris-citrate-glucose extender supplemented with different concentrations of cysteine. The motility, intact acrosomes, membrane integrity, mitochondrial potentials, 8-hydroxyguanosine level and sperm-zona pellucida binding capacity were examined. Furthermore, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, glutathione content (GSH), and level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hydrogen peroxide of spermatozoa were analyzed. The values of motility, intact acrosomes, membrane integrity, mitochondrial potentials and sperm-zona pellucida binding capacity of the frozen-thawed spermatozoa in the treatment of cysteine were significantly higher than those of the control. Addition of cysteine to extenders improved the GPx activity and GSH content of spermatozoa, while lowered the ROS, DNA oxidative alterations and lipid peroxidation level, which makes spermatozoa avoid ROS to attack DNA, the plasma membrane and mitochondria. In conclusion, cysteine protects spermatozoa against ROS-induced damages during cryopreservation and post-thaw incubation. Addition of cysteine is recommended to facilitate the improvement of semen preservation for the rabbit breeding industry.

PMID: 28700739 [PubMed - in process]

Forensic individual age estimation with DNA: From initial approaches to methylation tests.

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Forensic individual age estimation with DNA: From initial approaches to methylation tests.

Forensic Sci Rev. 2017 Jul;29(2):121-144

Authors: Freire-Aradas A, Phillips C, Lareu MV

Abstract
Individual age estimation is a key factor in forensic science analysis that can provide very useful information applicable to criminal, legal, and anthropological investigations. Forensic age inference was initially based on morphological inspection or radiography and only later began to adopt molecular approaches. However, a lack of accuracy or technical problems hampered the introduction of these DNA-based methodologies in casework analysis. A turning point occurred when the epigenetic signature of DNA methylation was observed to gradually change during an individual´s lifespan. In the last four years, the number of publications reporting DNA methylation age-correlated changes has gradually risen and the forensic community now has a range of age methylation tests applicable to forensic casework. Most forensic age predictor models have been developed based on blood DNA samples, but additional tissues are now also being explored. This review assesses the most widely adopted genes harboring methylation sites, detection technologies, statistical age-predictive analyses, and potential causes of variation in age estimates. Despite the need for further work to improve predictive accuracy and establishing a broader range of tissues for which tests can analyze the most appropriate methylation sites, several forensic age predictors have now been reported that provide consistency in their prediction accuracies (predictive error of ±4 years); this makes them compelling tools with the potential to contribute key information to help guide criminal investigations.

PMID: 28691915 [PubMed - in process]

A finding in genetic polymorphism analysis study: A case of non-mosaic 47, XXX without manifestations.

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A finding in genetic polymorphism analysis study: A case of non-mosaic 47, XXX without manifestations.

Leg Med (Tokyo). 2017 Jun 30;27:38-42

Authors: Yang X, Ye Z, Zhang X, Wang H, Liu C

Abstract
Trisomy X (47, XXX) is a sex chromosome aneuploidy condition in which females have an extra X chromosome, compared to the 46, XX karyotype in typical females. There is considerable variation in the phenotype, with some individuals very mildly affected and others with more significant physical and psychological features. However, the trisomy X in this case, without any of these phenotype, is rarely reported. Here, we report a case found during DNA sample collection in a study of genetic polymorphism analysis of loci in Chinese ethnic group, of a female with neither laboratory or clinical signs of Triple X syndrome. She was born at her mother's 60years old and her father's 62years old. Advanced maternal age was found acting as a significant risk factor of Triplo-X. Moreover, her child are also born without manifestations of 47, XXX syndrome. Pedigree study demonstrated the normal karyotype of the children. A diagnosis of 47XXX was made on the basis of a chromosomal study. Therefore, laboratory investigations (including PCR amplification, more than two kinds of X-STR genotyping, G-banding karyotyping analysis and Pedigree study) are applied to rule out the possibility of Mosaicism (45, X0/47, XXX) and ascertain her 47XXX karyotype without mosaic. The objective of this study was to report a case of trisomy X, diagnostic investigation and management of the case, and to analysis the genetically possible reasons behind the case. To our knowledge, this case is a rare one, found in DNA sample collection for the estimation of gene frequency in the process of genetic polymorphism study, of non-mosaic 47, XXX without signs of physical syndrome and born healthy children. In this study, it revealed that the proportion of trisomy X would be more than official statistics and risk of systemic disabilities is lower than estimated. Moreover, we found out that sample mixture and mosaicism act as the interference factors in forensic test. Therefore, we draw the conclusion that attentions and certain improved methods should be applied to the diagnosis of non-mosaic triple X, which is of great significance in decreasing the interruptions in the whole process of forensic and paternity identification.

PMID: 28697408 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

SN 619: All the Usual Suspects

Security Now (MP3)

This week we have all the usual suspects: Governments regulating their citizenry, evolving Internet standards, some brilliant new attack mitigations and some new side-channel attacks, browsers responding to negligent certificate authorities, specious tracking lawsuits, flying device jailbreaking, more IoT tomfoolery, this week's horrifying Android vulnerability, more Vault7 CIA Wikileaks, a great tip about controlling the Internet through DNS... and even more! In other words, all of the usual suspects! (And two weeks until our annual BlackHat exploit extravaganza!)

We invite you to read our show notes.

Hosts: Steve Gibson and Leo Laporte

Download or subscribe to this show at https://twit.tv/shows/security-now.

You can submit a question to Security Now! at the GRC Feedback Page.

For 16kbps versions, transcripts, and notes (including fixes), visit Steve's site: grc.com, also the home of the best disk maintenance and recovery utility ever written Spinrite 6.

Bandwidth for Security Now is provided by CacheFly.

Detection and volume estimation of artificial hematomas in the subcutaneous fatty tissue: comparison of different MR sequences at 3.0 T.

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Detection and volume estimation of artificial hematomas in the subcutaneous fatty tissue: comparison of different MR sequences at 3.0 T.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2017 Jun;13(2):135-144

Authors: Ogris K, Petrovic A, Scheicher S, Sprenger H, Urschler M, Hassler EM, Yen K, Scheurer E

Abstract
In legal medicine, reliable localization and analysis of hematomas in subcutaneous fatty tissue is required for forensic reconstruction. Due to the absence of ionizing radiation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is particularly suited to examining living persons with forensically relevant injuries. However, there is limited experience regarding MRI signal properties of hemorrhage in soft tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate MR sequences with respect to their ability to show high contrast between hematomas and subcutaneous fatty tissue as well as to reliably determine the volume of artificial hematomas. Porcine tissue models were prepared by injecting blood into the subcutaneous fatty tissue to create artificial hematomas. MR images were acquired at 3T and four blinded observers conducted manual segmentation of the hematomas. To assess segmentability, the agreement of measured volume with the known volume of injected blood was statistically analyzed. A physically motivated normalization taking into account partial volume effect was applied to the data to ensure comparable results among differently sized hematomas. The inversion recovery sequence exhibited the best segmentability rate, whereas the T1T2w turbo spin echo sequence showed the most accurate results regarding volume estimation. Both sequences led to reproducible volume estimations. This study demonstrates that MRI is a promising forensic tool to assess and visualize even very small amounts of blood in soft tissue. The presented results enable the improvement of protocols for detection and volume determination of hemorrhage in forensically relevant cases and also provide fundamental knowledge for future in-vivo examinations.

PMID: 28251480 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]