SN 574: Routers & Micro Kernels

Security Now

Hosts: Leo Laporte, Steve Gibson

Did the Shadow Brokers hack the NSA's Equation Group? Apple's bug bounty gets quickly outbid, a critical flaw discovered in the RNG of GnuPG, the EFF weighs in on Windows 10, Chrome browser is frightening people unnecessarily, a Johns Hopkins team of cryptographers, including Matthew Green, disclose a weakness in Apple's iMessage technology, unused router hardware capabilities, what's a "Micro Kernel?" And more!

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Effect of captivity and cryopreservation on ROS production in Solea senegalensis spermatozoa.

Effect of captivity and cryopreservation on ROS production in Solea senegalensis spermatozoa.

Reproduction. 2016 Aug 15;

Authors: Valcarce DG, Robles V

Abstract
Reactive oxygen species have a great impact on spermatozoa function. Gametes from sole males born in captivity (F1) display lower quality than those from wild individuals. In this paper the percentage of positive cells for dichlorofluorescein (DCF+) was determined by flow cytometry in wild and F1 animals, the effect of cryopreservation on DCF+ cells was evaluated in both groups and the distribution of H2O2 within the cell was studied by confocal microscopy. Our results indicated that there are no differences in either viability or DCF+ cells between wild and F1 animals when fresh samples were evaluated. However, when data were analyzed considering two different sperm populations in terms of motility, a significant decrease in viability and DCF+ cells was reported in low motile F1 spermatozoa. Cryopreservation did not alter viability or the presence of DCF+ cells in sperm samples from wild animals, but significantly decreased viability in F1 samples. Distribution patterns of H2O2 have been established by confocal microscopy in Solea senegalensis spermatozoa: colocalization of H2O2 with active mitochondria (MitoTracker+) and colocalization with nuclear DNA (DAPI). When compared with H2O2 distribution in other marine species such as Scophthalmus maximus, Solea senegalensis spermatozoa showed widespread presence of H2O2 particularly in the nuclei, which could potentially compromise DNA integrity.

PMID: 27528770 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Punicalagin Mollifies Lead Acetate-Induced Oxidative Imbalance in Male Reproductive System.

Punicalagin Mollifies Lead Acetate-Induced Oxidative Imbalance in Male Reproductive System.

Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17(8)

Authors: Rao F, Zhai Y, Sun F

Abstract
Punicalagin (PU) is a known antioxidant. The present study examined PU to protect against lead-induced oxidative stress (OS) testicular damage in mice. Significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) after intraperitoneal injection of lead acetate (LA) indicated enormous generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Lead-induced OS has a direct effect on the differentiation of spermatogonial cells, showing a significant decline in sperm count. Supplementation of PU significantly changes values of LPO and glutathione (GSH) with a concomitant increase in sperm count, a marked decrease in the abnormal sperms, and a decline in the morphologically abnormal sperm population. Moreover, the histopathological evaluation of testes and epididymides showed severe changes in mice treated with LA. PU significantly induced nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2-like 2 (Nrf2) expression and phase II enzymes, and data suggest that PU may inhibit OS through Nrf2 activation. The fertility test proved that PU might play an important role in male infertility treatment, especially in the type of infertility induced by OS.

PMID: 27529221 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

SN 573: Memory & Micro Kernels

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Hosts: Leo Laporte, Steve Gibson

Did Microsoft lose control of their secure boot "Golden Key"? AdBlock, unblock, counter-unblock, and counter-counter-unblock is well underway, Leo's story from the field about Avast A/V, a "security is hard to do" mistake in an update to the Internet's TCP protocol, Microsoft's evolving Windows Update policies, an uber-cool way for developers to decrypt and inspect their Firefox and Chrome local TLS traffic, trouble with Windows Identity leak mitigation, and discussion of micro kernels and Intel's forthcoming memory breakthrough!

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Are oxidative stress markers associated with unexplained male infertility?

Are oxidative stress markers associated with unexplained male infertility?

Andrologia. 2016 Aug 10;

Authors: Mayorga-Torres BJ, Camargo M, Cadavid ÁP, du Plessis SS, Cardona Maya WD

Abstract
Male infertility can be responsible for up to 20% of the cases attending fertility consultation facilities; nonetheless, the underlying molecular mechanisms that could explain it are still elusive. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate conventional and functional parameters of semen samples from patients who presented with male infertility of unknown origin. Conventional semen parameters and functional parameters (i.e. intracellular reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial membrane potential, sperm chromatin structure assay, sperm membrane lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma) were evaluated on semen samples from 54 healthy donors, 23 patients with idiopathic infertility and 34 fertile controls. No significant differences were observed in the conventional seminal parameters between the fertile and infertile men. However, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA fragmentation were observed in the infertile patients compared to the fertile group. Alterations in intracellular ROS production and DNA fragmentation could be associated with male idiopathic infertility. These parameters could eventually distinguish both groups more accurately than the conventional parameters. Our current results are encouraging, and the efficacy of these parameters in the clinical settings needs to be further assessed to establish their predictive potential as a marker of unexplained male infertility.

PMID: 27506165 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Estimation of stature and sex from scapular measurements by three-dimensional volume-rendering technique using in Chinese.

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Estimation of stature and sex from scapular measurements by three-dimensional volume-rendering technique using in Chinese.

Leg Med (Tokyo). 2016 Jul;21:58-63

Authors: Zhang K, Cui JH, Luo YZ, Fan F, Yang M, Li XH, Zhang W, Deng ZH

Abstract
In order to develop population - specific discriminant function equations and stature prediction equations for predicting sex and stature from measurements of the scapula in a contemporary Chinese, 414 individual 3D CT images were collected from participants undergoing routine examination. Sex differences for the variables were tested by Student's t-test. Fisher's method has been followed for discriminant analysis. Regression analysis was applied to match the six linear parameters against stature. The stepwise analysis of all measurements yielded a sex classification accuracy rate of 86.7% and a sex bias of 3.1%. All the classification accuracy rates of the univariate discriminant function analyses are of more than 80%. For stature estimation, the accuracy of stature prediction ranged from 5.252 to 7.210cm for male, from 4.630 to 6.484cm for female, respectively. This paper provides indications that the scapula is an important bone for sex diagnosis and it could be effectively used as alternatives in forensic cases. Furthermore, the equations presented for stature estimation in this study should be used as alternatives in forensic cases when long bones were unavailable for stature estimation.

PMID: 27497335 [PubMed - in process]

SN 572: Defcon & Blackhat, Part 1

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Hosts: Leo Laporte, Steve Gibson

A distressing quantity of Win10 news, Apple's changing bug bounty policy, newly disclosed Android takeover flaws, yet another way to track web visitors, hackers spoof Tesla auto sensors, Firefox and LastPass news, a19-year old stubborn decision by Microsoft comes home to roost, and a handful of new problems found with HTTP.

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Oestrous sheep serum balances ROS levels to supply in vitro capacitation of ram spermatozoa.

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Oestrous sheep serum balances ROS levels to supply in vitro capacitation of ram spermatozoa.

Reprod Domest Anim. 2016 Aug 5;

Authors: Del Olmo E, García-Álvarez O, Maroto-Morales A, Ramón M, Iniesta-Cuerda M, Martinez-Pastor F, Montoro V, Soler AJ, Garde JJ, Fernández-Santos MR

Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are fundamental for intracellular signalling. In spermatozoa, they are involved both to apoptosis and to capacitation, and changes in ROS levels can alter the balance between these two processes. Oestrous sheep serum (OSS) is considered an efficient agent for in vitro capacitation of ram spermatozoa. We have explored the effects of OSS on ram sperm physiology, especially on ROS production, during in vitro capacitation. Semen samples from 15 rams were cryopreserved. After thawing, samples were submitted to four treatments: control (CTL), 10% OSS supplementation for in vitro sperm capacitation, caspase inhibitor (INH, Z-VAD-FMK 100 μM) and OSS (10%) plus caspase inhibitor (I + E). Sperm samples were incubated for 30 min at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 and evaluated motility and kinetic parameters by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) and viability (propidium iodide), apoptotic-like membrane changes (YO-PRO-1), acrosomal status (PNA-FITC), intracellular calcium (FLUO-3), membrane fluidity (M540) and ROS production (CM-H2 DCFDA) by flow cytometry. OSS induced changes in kinetic parameters compatible with capacitation, with a decrease in the percentage of progressive motility and linearity, and an increase in the amplitude of the lateral displacement of the sperm head (p < .05). Moreover, OSS increased the proportion of M540+ viable spermatozoa, YO-PRO-1+ and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa (p < .05). After incubation, OSS and I+E achieved lower ROS levels (p < .05). Ca(2+) levels did not change with the incubation, but were slightly higher (p < .05) when both OSS and the inhibitor were present. We suggest that OSS may modulate ROS levels, allowing intracellular signalling for capacitation to occur while preventing higher levels that could trigger apoptosis.

PMID: 27491678 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The chronology of third molar mineralization by digital orthopantomography.

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The chronology of third molar mineralization by digital orthopantomography.

J Forensic Leg Med. 2016 Jul 27;43:70-75

Authors: Maled V, Vishwanath SB

Abstract
The present study was designed to determine the chronology of third molar mineralization to establish Indian reference data and to observe the advantages of digital orthopantomography. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was undertaken by evaluating 167 digital orthopantomographs in order to assess the mineralization status of the mandibular third molar of Caucasian individuals (85 males and 82 females) between the age of 14 and 24. The evaluation was carried out using the 8-stage developmental scheme of Demirjian et al (1973). The range, mean age, standard deviation and Student t-test are presented for each stage of mineralization in all four quadrants. Statistically significant differences between males and females were not found for all four third molars. All the individuals in this study with mature third molar were at least 18 years of age. For medicolegal purposes, the likelihood of whether an Indian is older than 18 years or not was determined. The advantage of digital orthopantomography in the interpretation of the tooth mineralization over the traditional method was acknowledged.

PMID: 27485643 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

[The foreign experience with the application of the modern radiodiagnostic methods for the estimation of prescription of death coming and time of infliction of injury].

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[The foreign experience with the application of the modern radiodiagnostic methods for the estimation of prescription of death coming and time of infliction of injury].

Sud Med Ekspert. 2016 Mar-Apr;59(2):47-54

Authors: Fetisov VA, Kuprina TA, Sinitsyn VE, Dubrova SE, Filimonov BA

Abstract
We undertook the analysis of the foreign publications concerning the application of the modern radiodiagnostic methods (including MSCT- and MRI-visualization) with reference to the solution of the traditional problems facing forensic medical expertise, such as the estimation of prescription of death coming and time of infliction of injury in the dead bodies. Both advantages and disadvantages of postmortem visualization of the corpses of adult subjects are discussed taking into consideration the period of time that elapsed between the death and the onset of the study as well as the character of the injuries. It was shown that the examination of the corpses using the up-to-date methods of radiodiagnostics prior to autopsy makes it possible for morphologists, jointly with radiologists, to identify, to see in the new light, and to evaluate the number of charges in the dead body, such as the alteration of the blood cell sedimentation rate, the formation of postmortem hypostases in the internal organs, the hardening of the walls of aorta and major blood vessels, right heart dilatation, gradual smoothing of the borderline between grey and white matter of the brain. Virtual autopsy can be useful , even for the study of such long-term processes in the corpses as putrefaction, saponification, mummification, and peat tanning. Moreover, this technique may be instrumental in the elucidation of the specific features of topographic-anatomical relationships between individual 'tissues and organs, detection of the concealed lesions, and a variety of pathological changes. Postmortem visualization allows for the quantitative evaluation of the severity of these transformations and the preliminary estimation of prescription of death coming. Also, radiodiagnostic methods can be employed to reliably visualize and measure various hemorrhagic events (from the density of such ones as liquid and clotted blood) in the tissues surrounding the fractures, in body cavities, and internal organs as well as to establish the facts of inter-vital aspiration of blood, alimentary masses, liquid and solid foreign bodies penetrating into the upper sections of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts as the consequence f an injury. It is concluded that the postmortem visualization techniques employed to estimate prescription of death coming and time of infliction of injury as well as other complicated problems facing forensic medical expertize need the further scientifically based development.

PMID: 27358930 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]