Analysis of the effects of polyphenols on human spermatozoa reveals unexpected impacts on mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress and DNA integrity; implications for assisted reproductive technology.

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Analysis of the effects of polyphenols on human spermatozoa reveals unexpected impacts on mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress and DNA integrity; implications for assisted reproductive technology.

Biochem Pharmacol. 2016 Sep 19;

Authors: Aitken RJ, Muscio L, Whiting S, Connaughton HS, Fraser BA, Nixon B, Smith ND, De Iuliis GN

Abstract
The need to protect human spermatozoa from oxidative stress during assisted reproductive technology, has prompted a detailed analysis of the impacts of phenolic compounds on the functional integrity of these cells. Investigation of 16 individual compounds revealed a surprising variety of negative effects including: (i) a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) via mechanisms that were not related to opening of the permeability transition pore but associated with a reduction in thiol expression, (ii) a decline in intracellular reduced glutathione, (iii) the stimulation of pro-oxidant activity including the induction of ROS generation from mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial sources (iv) stimulation of lipid peroxidation (v) the generation of oxidative DNA damage, and (vi) impaired sperm motility. For most of the polyphenolic compounds examined, the loss of motility was gradual and highly correlated with the induction of lipid peroxidation (r = 0.889). The exception was gossypol, which induced a rapid loss of motility due to its inherent alkylating activity; one consequence of which was a marked reduction in carboxymethyl lysine expression on the sperm tail; a post-translational modification that is known to play a key role in the regulation of sperm movement. The only polyphenols that did not appear to have adverse effects on spermatozoa were resveratrol, genistein and THP at doses below 100 μM. These compounds could, therefore, have some therapeutic potential in a clinical setting.

PMID: 27659810 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Protective effects of melatonin on bovine sperm characteristics and subsequent in vitro embryo development.

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Protective effects of melatonin on bovine sperm characteristics and subsequent in vitro embryo development.

Mol Reprod Dev. 2016 Sep 21;

Authors: Pang YW, Sun YQ, Jiang XL, Huang ZQ, Zhao SJ, Du WH, Hao HS, Zhao XM, Zhu HB

Abstract
We aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin on bovine frozen-thawed semen and its impact on fertilization outcome. Plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity, acrosome integrity, and levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured in spermatozoa treated with different concentrations of melatonin. Melatonin-treated spermatozoa were then used for in vitro fertilization, followed by analysis of subsequent embryo development and the expression of apoptosis- and antioxidant-related genes. The results revealed that 10(-5) and 10(-3)  M melatonin led to higher plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity, and acrosome integrity, and significantly decreased intracellular ROS levels (P < 0.05). The blastocyst development rate of in vitro-produced bovine embryos originating from 10(-3)  M melatonin-treated spermatozoa was significantly higher, while the incidence of apoptotic nuclei in blastocysts was markedly lower than for embryos from any other group (P < 0.05). CASP3 and BAX mRNA abundances were significantly down-regulated whereas BCL2, XIAP, and CAT transcript abundance was significantly increased in embryos produced from spermatozoa treated with 10(-3)  M melatonin; GPX4 expression, however, was comparable in all treatment groups. Thus, 10(-3)  M melatonin can improve the quality of bovine frozen-thawed semen. These beneficial effects appear to influence preimplantation embryos, given the correlation with its anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative properties. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 27653174 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Dental age estimation in Brazilian HIV children using Willems’ method.

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Dental age estimation in Brazilian HIV children using Willems' method.

Forensic Sci Int. 2015 Dec;257:510.e1-4

Authors: de Souza RB, da Silva Assunção LR, Franco A, Zaroni FM, Holderbaum RM, Fernandes Â

Abstract
The notification of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Brazilian children was first reported in 1984. Since that time more than 21 thousand children became infected. Approximately 99.6% of the children aged less than 13 years old are vertically infected. In this context, most of the children are abandoned after birth, or lose their relatives in a near future, growing with uncertain identification. The present study aims to estimate the dental age of Brazilian HIV patients in face of healthy patients paired by age and gender. The sample consisted of 160 panoramic radiographs of male (n: 80) and female (n: 80) patients aged between 4 and 15 years (mean age: 8.88 years), divided into HIV (n: 80) and control (n: 80) groups. The sample was analyzed by three trained examiners, using Willems' method, 2001. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was applied to test intra- and inter-examiner agreement, and Student paired t-test was used to determine the age association between HIV and control groups. Intra-examiner (ICC: from 0.993 to 0.997) and inter-examiner (ICC: from 0.991 to 0.995) agreement tests indicated high reproducibility of the method between the examiners (P<0.01). Willems' method revealed discrete statistical overestimation in HIV (2.86 months; P=0.019) and control (1.90 months; P=0.039) groups. However, stratified analysis by gender indicate that overestimation were only concentrated in male HIV (3.85 months; P=0.001) and control (2.86 months; P=0.022) patients. The significant statistical differences are not clinically relevant once only few months of discrepancy are detected applying Willems' method in a Brazilian HIV sample, making this method highly recommended for dental age estimation of both HIV and healthy children with unknown age.

PMID: 26318404 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Morphometric analysis of sex differences in contemporary Japanese pelves using multidetector computed tomography.

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Morphometric analysis of sex differences in contemporary Japanese pelves using multidetector computed tomography.

Forensic Sci Int. 2015 Dec;257:530.e1-7

Authors: Torimitsu S, Makino Y, Saitoh H, Sakuma A, Ishii N, Yajima D, Inokuchi G, Motomura A, Chiba F, Yamaguchi R, Hashimoto M, Hoshioka Y, Iwase H

Abstract
Sex estimation of decomposed or skeletal remains is clearly important in forensic contexts. Recently, contemporary population-specific data has been obtained using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanning. The main purpose of this study was to investigate skeletal pelvic dimorphism in a contemporary Japanese forensic sample and to quantify the accuracy of sex estimation using various pelvic measurements obtained from three-dimensional (3D) CT images. This study used a total of 208 cadavers (104 males, 104 females) of which postmortem CT scanning and subsequent forensic autopsy were conducted between December 2011 and August 2014. Eleven measurements of each pelvis were obtained from 3D CT reconstructed images that extracted only bone data. The measurements were analyzed using descriptive statistics and discriminant function analyses. All except one measurement were dimorphic in terms of sex differences. Univariate discriminant function analyses using these measurements provided sex classification accuracy rates of 62.0-98.1%. The subpubic angle was found to contribute most significantly to accurate sex estimation. Multivariate discriminant functions yielded sex prediction accuracy rates of 63.9-98.1%. In conclusion, the pelvic measurements obtained from 3D CT images of a contemporary Japanese population successfully demonstrated sexual dimorphism and may be useful for the estimation of skeletal sex in the field of forensic anthropology.

PMID: 26553274 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Estimation of stature from radiologic anthropometry of the lumbar vertebral dimensions in Chinese.

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Estimation of stature from radiologic anthropometry of the lumbar vertebral dimensions in Chinese.

Leg Med (Tokyo). 2015 Nov;17(6):483-8

Authors: Zhang K, Chang YF, Fan F, Deng ZH

Abstract
The recent study was to assess the relationship between the radiologic anthropometry of the lumbar vertebral dimensions and stature in Chinese and to develop regression formulae to estimate stature from these dimensions. A total of 412 normal, healthy volunteers, comprising 206 males and 206 females, were recruited. The linear regression analysis were performed to assess the correlation between the stature and lengths of various segments of the lumbar vertebral column. Among the regression equations created for single variable, the predictive value was greatest for the reconstruction of stature from the lumbar segment in both sexes and subgroup analysis. When individual vertebral body was used, the heights of posterior vertebral body of L3 gave the most accurate results for male group, the heights of central vertebral body of L1 provided the most accurate results for female group and female group with age above 45 years, the heights of central vertebral body of L3 gave the most accurate results for the groups with age from 20-45 years for both sexes and the male group with age above 45 years. The heights of anterior vertebral body of L5 gave the less accurate results except for the heights of anterior vertebral body of L4 provided the less accurate result for the male group with age above 45 years. As expected, multiple regression equations were more successful than equations derived from a single variable. The research observations suggest lumbar vertebral dimensions to be useful in stature estimation among Chinese population.

PMID: 26593994 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Sperm of patients with severe asthenozoospermia show biochemical, molecular, and genomic alterations.

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Sperm of patients with severe asthenozoospermia show biochemical, molecular, and genomic alterations.

Reproduction. 2016 Sep 20;

Authors: Bonanno O, Romeo G, Asero P, Pezzino FM, Castiglione R, Burrello N, Sidoti G, Frajese GV, Vicari E, D'Agata R

Abstract
Severely low sperm motility is a frequent cause of infertility. This pathological condition is multifactorial. However, mechanisms underlying the development of this condition are not completely understood. Single abnormalities have been reported in sperms of patients with asthenozoospermia. In the present study, we characterized, in 22 normozoospermic men and in 37 patients with asthenozoospermia, biochemical, molecular, and genomic abnormalities that frequently occur in sperm of patients with asthenozoospermia. We evaluated a panel of sperm biomarkers that may affect the motility and fertilizing ability of sperm of patients with severe asthenozoospermia. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is involved in the pathogenesis of such sperm abnormalities, we determined the association between ROS production and sperm abnormalities. High percentage of patients with severe asthenozoospermia showed increased basal and stimulated ROS production. Moreover, these patients showed increased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number but decreased mtDNA integrity and they were associated with elevated ROS levels. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential was also significantly decreased and again associated with high ROS production in these patients. However, the rate of nuclear DNA fragmentation was increased only in less than one-fifth of these patients. An important cohort of these patients showed multiple identical biochemical, molecular, and genomic abnormalities, which are typical manifestations of oxidative stress. The most frequent association was found in patients with high ROS levels, increased mtDNA copy number and decreased integrity, and low MMP. A smaller cohort of the aforementioned patients also showed nDNA fragmentation. Therefore, patients with asthezoospermia likely present reduced fertilizing potential because of such composed abnormalities.

PMID: 27651518 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

SN 578: GRC’s XSS Adventure

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Hosts: Steve Gibson, Fr. Robert Ballecer, SJ

Concerns over a significant expansion in effectively warrantless intrusion into end-user computers, the forthcoming change in Internet governance, NTIA's contract with ICANN to handle IANA is expiring in ten days! Google's next move in using Chrome to push for improved security, the interresting details emerging from a successful NAND memory cloning attack on the iPhone 5c and Steve shares the details and findings of a recent Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) problem on GRC and his recommendation for the best website security scanner!

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Dental development in patients with agenesis.

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Dental development in patients with agenesis.

Int J Legal Med. 2016 Sep 18;

Authors: Lebbe A, Cadenas de Llano-Pérula M, Thevissen P, Verdonck A, Fieuws S, Willems G

Abstract
AIM: Recent research concerning tooth development and dental agenesis suggests that specific genes are associated with agenesis, and that these genetic factors could also cause delayed dental development of the remaining teeth. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether dental development of patients with agenesis is delayed, compared to a control group.
SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Panoramic radiographs of 1145 patients with dental agenesis were collected (452 males, 693 females) aged 6.2 to 24.8 years. The control group included 2032 panoramic radiographs (977 males, 1055 females) aged 6.0 to 24.4 years. A total of 3177 orthopantomograms were staged according to Demirjian. All left permanent teeth present in the mandible (except third molars) were considered. In order to evaluate the difference between patients with and without agenesis, a developmental score (DS) was calculated. The association between the DS and the number of agenetic teeth was evaluated with a Spearman correlation.
RESULTS: Based on the DS, patients with agenesis have a delayed development compared to patients in the control group (p < 0.0001). Within the agenesis group, there is a weak relation between the number of agenetic teeth and the DS: the higher the number of teeth with agenesis, the lower the DS (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.06 for females and males, respectively).
CONCLUSION: The obtained results can be an important factor for treatment planning in patients with dental agenesis. Moreover, the presence of agenesis needs to be taken into account when using age estimation methods based on permanent tooth development.

PMID: 27640191 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

[Relationship between Body Height and Craniofacial Lines Measured by CT in Southwest Han Males].

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[Relationship between Body Height and Craniofacial Lines Measured by CT in Southwest Han Males].

Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2016 Apr;32(2):97-9

Authors: Tu M, Luo YZ, Fan F, Yun LB, Deng ZH

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To establish regression model between craniofacial lines and body height by measuring craniofacial lines in Southwest Han males using CT and to accumulate data for the study of forensic anthropology.
METHODS: Head CT data of 273 Han males in Southwest were collected and 7 craniofacial lines were determined. Multiplanar reconstruction and volume rendering were performed by image post-processing software and the selected lines were measured. The relationship between each measuring indicator and body height was analyzed using SPSS 21.0 software. The regression equation of body height estimation was established and 50 samples were selected again and put into the mathematics models to verify its accuracy.
RESULTS: The linear regression equations of 7 lines were established (P < 0.05). The correlation coefficients of the unary linear regression equations were 0.190-0.439 and the standard errors of the estimate (SEE) were 4.597-5.023 cm. The correlation coefficients of the multiple linear regression equation were 0.494-0.524 and the SEE were 4.418-4.458 cm. The return tests showed that the highest ± 1SEE accuracy of the multiple regression equation: y = 83.959+3.589 x6+2.573 x2, were 30%; and the highest ± 2SEE accuracy of the multiple regression equation: y = 72.646+3.316 x6+1.586 x2+1.553 x4+2.211 x3, were 92%.
CONCLUSION: There is significant linear correlation between 7 selected lines and the stature in this study, and the plural linear regression equation established could be applied for estimating the stature of Southwest Han males.

PMID: 27501679 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254) on human sperm motility.

Toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254) on human sperm motility.

Asian J Androl. 2016 Sep 13;

Authors: Jiang LG, Cheng LY, Kong SH, Yang Y, Shen YJ, Chen C, Deng XH, Liu SZ, Chao L

Abstract
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are common environmental contaminants that represent a considerable risk to reproductive toxicity in exposed human populations. Although some experimental studies have suggested an association between the levels of PCBs and semen quality, the direct effects of PCBs on human sperm parameters remain largely unexplored. To this aim, a short-term in vitro incubation experiment that better imitated the putative exposure of sperm to Aroclor 1254 (a commercial PCB mixture) in male reproduction tissue was conducted. Human sperm were incubated with various concentrations (0, 1, 5, or 25 mg l-1 ) of Aroclor 1254 for different amounts of time (3 and 6 h) in vitro. Sperm motility parameters were analyzed with computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). The proportion of sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected to explore the probable cause of sperm impairment. Human sperm exposed to continuous Aroclor 1254 exhibited: (i) reduced sperm motility and kinematic parameters, (ii) a proportion of sperm with high ΔΨm that decreased in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05), and (iii) increased levels of ROS compared with controls (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Aroclor 1254 can decrease sperm motility, which may culminate in increased ROS and general mitochondrial dysfunction, thus affecting the fertilization potential of sperm. Our findings suggest a broader understanding of the effect of Aroclor 1254 on human sperm.

PMID: 27624986 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]