Age estimation of immature human skeletal remains from the dimensions of the girdle bones in the postnatal period.
Am J Phys Anthropol. 2017 May 24;:
Authors: Cardoso HFV, Spake L, Humphrey LT
OBJECTIVES: This study provides classical calibration regression formulae for age estimation from the dimensions of unfused shoulder and pelvic girdle bones.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Age estimation models were derived from a sample of 160 known age and sex individuals (63 females and 97 males) aged birth to 12 years, selected from Portuguese and English skeletal collections. The sample was divided into two age groups at the age of 2 years, and formulae were obtained for the sexes separately and combined.
RESULTS: Measurements of the pelvis provide more precise age estimates than the shoulder. In the younger age group, the height and width of the ilium, and the height of the glenoid yield the most precise age estimates. In the older age group, the length of the clavicle provides the most precise estimates, followed by measurements of the pubis and ischium.
DISCUSSION: In the younger individuals (<2 years), age estimates based on measurements of the pelvic girdle seem to be as or more precise than those based on the length of long bones. In older individuals (≥2 years), estimates based on the measurements of the girdles are less precise than those based on the length of long bones. These age estimation formulae may be useful for fragmentary and incomplete material in archaeological and forensic contexts. The formulae are suitable for a variety of archeological populations living under adverse conditions. These conditions are similar to some "developing" countries, and hence the formulae may also be applicable to modern forensic remains from such environments.
PMID: 28542741 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Quantifying Sexual Dimorphism in the Human Cranium: A Preliminary Analysis of a Novel Method.
J Forensic Sci. 2017 May 26;:
Authors: Casado AM
In forensic anthropology, sexually dimorphic cranial features are traditionally visually assessed and scored using an ordinal scale, which is highly subjective. This study quantifies six cranial features using original three-dimensional coordinate measurements to provide greater accuracy in sex estimation. Cranial features include supraorbital ridges, glabella, external occipital protuberance, nuchal protuberances, mastoid processes, and frontal bosses. Measurements were taken using coordinate calipers from 158 White and Black male and female crania from the Maxwell Documented Collection at University of New Mexico and Tennessee's Bass Collection. Overall, 72.2% of the crania were correctly classified. Males were correctly classified 69.9% of the time, while females were correctly classified 74.7% of the time. The overall value is similar to the results from traditional methods and suggests this method may be just as reliable as established visual sex estimation techniques.
PMID: 28547887 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Geometric morphometric and traditional methods for sex assessment using the posterior ilium.
Leg Med (Tokyo). 2017 May;26:52-61
Authors: Rmoutilová R, Dupej J, Velemínská J, Brůžek J
The human hip bone is generally accepted as the most reliable bone for sex estimation in forensic and bioarchaeological disciplines. However, it is seldom completely preserved. The best preserved region is typically around the sacroiliac joint and its auricular surface; it is therefore surprising that this surface has not been involved in standard sexing methods. The aim of this study was to explore the shape and size sexual dimorphism of the auricular surface in detail and to compare its sex estimation accuracy using the geometric morphometric (GM) and traditional methodological approach. Our sample consisted of 121 specimens from 3 European osteological collections. The GM part of the study was based on 2D sliding semilandmarks that covered the outline of the auricular surface. Furthermore, several linear measurements and visual features (e.g. auricular surface elevation, postauricular sulcus) were chosen to test sex estimation accuracy using support vector machines. Concerning the GM analysis, the most notable sexual differences in the auricular surface outline relate to size. The best accuracy was achieved using form variables reaching 81.0%. Comparable accuracy (80.2%) was achieved using the metric approach, but combined with visual features the accuracy was increased to 93.4%. The GM approach was not very efficient in sexing the auricular surface outline, but the combination of visual features from the posterior ilium and metric variables of the auricular surface could be useful in sex estimation. Therefore, we provide a further testable linear discriminant equation based on this combination of variables.
PMID: 28549548 [PubMed - in process]
Age estimation by the Cameriere's normalized measurements (CNM) of the single permanent mandibular tooth on a panoramic radiograph.
Leg Med (Tokyo). 2017 May;26:65-72
Authors: Galić I, Pacifici A, Carbone D, Pacifici L, Jerončić A, Cameriere R
In this study Cameriere's normalized measurements (CNM) of a single mandibular tooth were evaluated for age estimation on a sample of ortopantomographies (OPTs) of 2223 Italian children aged between 4 and 15years. Dental maturity was radiographically evaluated by CNM of the seven left permanent mandibular teeth (CNMi=Ai/Li, i=1,…,7); in monoradicular teeth, the distance (Ai, i=1,…,5) between the inner sides of the open apex was measured while in biradicular teeth (Ai, i=6, 7), the sum of the distances between the inner sides of the two open apices was calculated. Ai was normalized by the tooth length (Li, i=1,…,7). The intra- and inter-observer agreement of CNM measurements was almost perfect. Overall, analyzed mandibular teeth finished their development up to the age of 13, but the distribution of CNM varied among different locations. The final models included a tooth-specific CNM as the independent variable and explained from 76% (second molars) to 39% (first incisors) of the variance in chronological age. The bias and accuracy of these models, when applied to real-life data with no age limitation, were within acceptable range of differences in the forensic anthropology of children. Specifically, in all models mean of absolute differences between estimated and real age was within one year (0.67 for first incisors to 1.00 for canines). In conclusion this study showed that all mandibular teeth do not have equal applicability for age estimation suggesting that further evaluation on different samples is necessary to evaluate the usefulness of a single mandibular tooth for age estimation.
PMID: 28549551 [PubMed - in process]
Tea polyphenol-T. arjuna bark as sperm antioxidant extender in infertile smokers.
Cryo Letters. 2017 Mar/Apr;38(2):95-99
Authors: Parameswari R, Rao KA, Manigandan P, Vickram AS, Archana A, Sridharan TB
BACKGROUND: Antioxidants protect spermatozoa against lipid peroxidation during freezing.
OBJECTIVE: The study is designed to elucidate the suitable extender to preserve infertile semen of smokers against ROS damage using natural Tea polyphenol (T. arjuna bark extract).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two infertile subjects with smoking habit and 28 fertile subjects without smoking habit were considered for the study. Four semen extenders including our naturally derived antioxidant component were prepared and used to preserve semen sample from the study subjects for a period of one month. Standard semen parameters, biochemical and sperm DNA damage marker with inhibition were measured before and after cryopreservation.
RESULTS: The motility and morphology of sperm cells were maintained better in E4 extender, and DNA damage is reduced.
CONCLUSION: Extender recipe with natural antioxidants (E3 and E4) was found to be apt for infertile semen preservation.
PMID: 28534052 [PubMed - in process]
Comparison of two methods of seminal plasma removal on buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm cryopreservation.
Reprod Domest Anim. 2017 May 19;:
Authors: Albuquerque RS, Morais R, Reis AN, Miranda MS, Dias E, Monteiro FM, Paz C, Nichi M, Kawai G, Della'Aqua C, Papa FO, Viana RB, Gimenes LU
Cryopreservation causes damage to spermatozoa, and methods minimizing this damage are therefore needed. Although much discussed, seminal plasma removal has become an alternative to improve sperm quality and viability after freezing and has been applied to different species in attempt to obtain good results. The objective of this study was to evaluate semen quality in buffaloes submitted to two methods for seminal plasma removal (filtration and centrifugation). Semen samples were collected from seven Murrah buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) once a week for 8 weeks. Each ejaculate was divided into three groups: control (presence of seminal plasma), centrifugation and filtration. Sperm kinetics was evaluated with the computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. Plasmalemma and acrosomal membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by flow cytometry, and lipid peroxidation was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Seminal plasma removal did not improve sperm kinetics compared to the control group. Centrifugation increased the number of cells with damaged acrosomal membranes (0.77 ± 0.05) and filtration caused greater plasmalemma and acrosomal membrane damage (22.18 ± 1.07). No difference in the mitochondrial membrane potential was observed between groups. In contrast, ROS production was higher in the centrifugation group compared to the control and filtration groups, although no differences in TBARS formation were detected. In conclusion, seminal plasma removal did not improve the quality of thawed buffalo semen compared to control in terms of sperm kinetics, membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential or lipid peroxidation.
PMID: 28543808 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Body composition estimation from selected slices: equations computed from a new semi-automatic thresholding method developed on whole-body CT scans.
Authors: Lacoste Jeanson A, Dupej J, Villa C, Brůžek J
BACKGROUND: Estimating volumes and masses of total body components is important for the study and treatment monitoring of nutrition and nutrition-related disorders, cancer, joint replacement, energy-expenditure and exercise physiology. While several equations have been offered for estimating total body components from MRI slices, no reliable and tested method exists for CT scans. For the first time, body composition data was derived from 41 high-resolution whole-body CT scans. From these data, we defined equations for estimating volumes and masses of total body AT and LT from corresponding tissue areas measured in selected CT scan slices.
METHODS: We present a new semi-automatic approach to defining the density cutoff between adipose tissue (AT) and lean tissue (LT) in such material. An intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to validate the method. The equations for estimating the whole-body composition volume and mass from areas measured in selected slices were modeled with ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regressions and support vector machine regression (SVMR).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The best predictive equation for total body AT volume was based on the AT area of a single slice located between the 4th and 5th lumbar vertebrae (L4-L5) and produced lower prediction errors (|PE| = 1.86 liters, %PE = 8.77) than previous equations also based on CT scans. The LT area of the mid-thigh provided the lowest prediction errors (|PE| = 2.52 liters, %PE = 7.08) for estimating whole-body LT volume. We also present equations to predict total body AT and LT masses from a slice located at L4-L5 that resulted in reduced error compared with the previously published equations based on CT scans. The multislice SVMR predictor gave the theoretical upper limit for prediction precision of volumes and cross-validated the results.
PMID: 28533960 [PubMed - in process]
This week we examine a bunch of WannaCry follow-ups, including some new background, reports of abilities to decrypt drives, attacks on the Killswitch, and more. We also look at what the large StackOverflow site had to do to do HTTPS, the Wi-Fi security of various properties owned by the US president, more worrisome news coming from the UK's Teresa May, the still sorry state of certificate revocation, are SSDs also subject to RowHammer-like attacks? Some miscellany, and closing the loop with our listeners.
We invite you to read our show notes.
Hosts: Steve Gibson and Leo Laporte
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First records of Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Diptera: Muscidae) from forensic cases in Italy.
Forensic Sci Int. 2017 May 10;:
Authors: Lo Pinto S, Giordani G, Tuccia F, Ventura F, Vanin S
The knowledge of the fauna associated with carrions and cadavers for a specific region plays a fundamental role in the estimation of the time since death in forensic cases. In the last years global warming and globalization have affected the insect species distribution. This phenomenon is affecting also the species of forensic interest associated with the cadaver decomposition. The species distribution shift, in the forensic context, has been mainly observed in Diptera of different family: Calliphoridae, Stratiomyidae and Phoridae. In the last decade the presence of the carrion feeding species, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Diptera: Muscidae), was reported from forensic cases in Spain and in the last year from Italy where the species was collected from 5 bodies in different decomposition stages in the Genoa district. All the records concern indoor cases with the presence of other species belonging to the first colonization waves (e.g. Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae). Different hypothesis about the presence of the species in Italy can be suggested, but the molecular analysis and the importation records support the introduction trough commercial exchanges with Asian countries instead of a variation in the species distribution area from the Iberian Peninsula.
PMID: 28526458 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Estimation of Total Length of Femur from its Proximal and Distal Segmental Measurements of Disarticulated Femur Bones of Nepalese Population using Regression Equation Method.
J Clin Diagn Res. 2017 Mar;11(3):HC01-HC05
Authors: Khanal L, Shah S, Koirala S
INTRODUCTION: Length of long bones is taken as an important contributor for estimating one of the four elements of forensic anthropology i.e., stature of the individual. Since physical characteristics of the individual differ among different groups of population, population specific studies are needed for estimating the total length of femur from its segment measurements.
AIM: Since femur is not always recovered intact in forensic cases, it was the aim of this study to derive regression equations from measurements of proximal and distal fragments in Nepalese population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done among 60 dry femora (30 from each side) without sex determination in anthropometry laboratory. Along with maximum femoral length, four proximal and four distal segmental measurements were measured following the standard method with the help of osteometric board, measuring tape and digital Vernier's caliper. Bones with gross defects were excluded from the study. Measured values were recorded separately for right and left side. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 11.5) was used for statistical analysis.
RESULTS: The value of segmental measurements were different between right and left side but statistical difference was not significant except for depth of medial condyle (p=0.02). All the measurements were positively correlated and found to have linear relationship with the femoral length.
CONCLUSION: With the help of regression equation, femoral length can be calculated from the segmental measurements; and then femoral length can be used to calculate the stature of the individual. The data collected may contribute in the analysis of forensic bone remains in study population.
PMID: 28511408 [PubMed - in process]