Influence of iodine in excess on seminiferous tubular structure and epididymal sperm character in male rats.

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Influence of iodine in excess on seminiferous tubular structure and epididymal sperm character in male rats.

Environ Toxicol. 2017 Feb 16;:

Authors: Chandra AK, Chakraborty A

Abstract
Excess iodine induced public health problems are now emerging in many iodine sufficient regions for indiscriminate intake of iodine through various iodized products. It has been reported that excess iodine can disrupt overall male reproductive physiology by generating oxidative stress in the testis. However, information on the possible effect of iodine in excess on spermatozoa found less. In the present investigation flow cytometric techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to study the spermatozoal functional as well as structural status under the influence of excess iodine; generation of ROS in the spermatozoa as evident by DCFDA, altered acrosomal integrity as observed by fluorescence lectin staining method and depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) noticed by JC-1 staining. Ultrastructure of seminiferous tubule after excess iodine exposure indicated severe deterioration of seminiferous tubular surface architecture. Significant increase in spermatozoal DNA fragmentation and apoptotic sperms were found by acridine orange and Annexin V, respectively, however the plasma membrane integrity/viability was decreased as evident by propidium iodide staining in various incremental doses and durations under iodine excess. The study reveals that excess iodine could cause apoptosis of spermatozoal cells by inducing ROS that ultimately affects male fertility potential.

PMID: 28205391 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Estimation of gestational age from gall-bladder length.

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Estimation of gestational age from gall-bladder length.

Med Sci Law. 2016 Jan;56(1):26-9

Authors: Udaykumar K, Udaykumar P, Nagesh KR

Abstract
Establishing a precise duration of gestation is vital in situations such as infanticide and criminal abortions. The present study attempted to estimate the gestational age of the foetus from gall-bladder length. Foetuses of various gestational age groups were dissected, and the length of the gall bladder was measured. The results were analysed, and a substantial degree of correlation was statistically confirmed. This novel method is helpful when the foetus is fragmented, putrefied or eviscerated, where this method can be used as an additional parameter to improve the accuracy of foetal age estimation.

PMID: 25990829 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Estimation of height from the length of the sternum in an adult Indian population.

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Estimation of height from the length of the sternum in an adult Indian population.

Med Sci Law. 2016 Jan;56(1):46-52

Authors: Tumram NK, Parchake SB, Bardale RV, Dixit PG

Abstract
Stature estimation is one of the essential early steps during forensic investigation of human skeletal remains. The aim of the present study was to obtain a linear regression formula for estimating stature from sternal length of a central Indian population. The study includes 92 male cadavers brought for medico-legal autopsies. The linear regression equations were derived from manubrium, mesosternum and the total sternal length. The regression model provided a 95% confidence interval of ±14.8 cm and a correlation coefficient of 0.55. Compared with other studies, regression formulae based on the length of the sternum provided considerably larger standard errors than that based on long bone lengths. The study indicates that sternal length in relation with body stature shows a moderate positive correlation and relatively low reliability in estimating stature, and has limited forensic value.

PMID: 26209632 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2,2′,4,4′-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether injures cell viability and mitochondrial function of mouse spermatocytes by decreasing mitochondrial proteins Atp5b and Uqcrc1.

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2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether injures cell viability and mitochondrial function of mouse spermatocytes by decreasing mitochondrial proteins Atp5b and Uqcrc1.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016 Sep;46:301-10

Authors: Huang S, Wang J, Cui Y

Abstract
Our object was to explore direct effects and mechanism of BDE47 on GC2 (immortalized mouse spermatocyte). GC2 were exposed to DMSO, 0.1, 1, 10, 100μM BDE47 for 48h. Cell viability was detected by trypan-blue exclusion; ultrastructure by electron-microscopy; cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane motential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) by flow-cytometry; ATP production by luminometer; Atp5b, Uqcrc1, Bcl-2 level by WB. To explore whether the decreased mitochondrial proteins play an important role in apoptosis, MMP and apoptosis were detected after Atp5b or Uqcrc1 knockdown in GC2. Results showed BDE47 reduced cell viability, caused condensation of nuclear and vacuolated mitochondria, decreased MMP and ATP, induced ROS, cell cycle arrest at S and G2/M phase, reduced Atp5b, Uqcrc1, Bcl-2 in GC2. Knockdown of Atp5b or Uqcrc1 decreased MMP, induced apoptosis in GC2. Results suggested that BDE47 reduced cell viability, injured mitochondria in spermatocytes probably by decreasing mitochondrial protein Atp5b and Uqcrc1.

PMID: 27525561 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

SN 599: TLS Interception INsecurity

Security Now (MP3)

Patch Tuesday DELAYED (and we may know why!), our favorite ad-blocker embraces the last major browser, a university gets attacked by its own vending machines, PHP leaps into the future, a slick high-end Linux hack, the rise of fileless malware, some good advice for tax time, it's not only Android's pattern lock that's vulnerable to visual eavesdropping, what happens with you store a huge pile of Samsung Note 7's in one place?, some fun miscellany, a MUST NOT MISS science fiction TV series, a look at the growing worrisome security implications of uncontrolled TLS interception.

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Hosts: Steve Gibson and Leo Laporte

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Impact of induced levels of specific free radicals and malondialdehyde on chicken semen quality and fertility.

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Impact of induced levels of specific free radicals and malondialdehyde on chicken semen quality and fertility.

Theriogenology. 2017 Mar 01;90:11-19

Authors: Rui BR, Shibuya FY, Kawaoku AJ, Losano JD, Angrimani DS, Dalmazzo A, Nichi M, Pereira RJ

Abstract
Over the past decades, scientists endeavored to comprehend oxidative stress in poultry spermatozoa and its relationship with fertilizing ability, lipid peroxidation (LPO), free-radical scavenging systems, and antioxidant therapy. Although considerable progress has been made, further improvement is needed in understanding how specific reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA, a toxic byproduct of LPO) disrupt organelles in avian spermatozoon. Hence, this study examined functional changes in chicken spermatozoa after incubation with different ROS, and their implications for the fertility. First, semen samples from 14 roosters were individually diluted and aliquoted into five equal parts: control, superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radicals, and MDA. After incubation with these molecules, aliquots were analyzed for motility, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity, and LPO and DNA damage. Hydrogen peroxide was more detrimental for sperm motility than hydroxyl radicals, whereas the superoxide anion and MDA exhibited no differences compared with controls. In turn, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity, LPO and DNA integrity rates were only affected by hydroxyl radicals. Thereafter, semen aliquots were incubated under the same conditions and used for artificial insemination. In accordance to our in vitro observations, H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals sharply reduced egg fertility, whereas superoxide anion and MDA only induced slight declines. Thus, chicken sperm function was severely impaired by H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals, but their mechanisms of action seemingly comprise different pathways. Further analysis regarding susceptibility of spermatozoon organelles to specific radicals in other poultry will help us to understand the development of interspecific differences in scavenging systems and to outline more oriented antioxidant approaches.

PMID: 28166956 [PubMed - in process]

Quercetin inhibits human sperm functions by reducing sperm [Ca2+]i and tyrosine phosphorylation.

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Quercetin inhibits human sperm functions by reducing sperm [Ca2+]i and tyrosine phosphorylation.

Pak J Pharm Sci. 2016 Nov;29(6(Suppl)):2391-2396

Authors: Liang X, Xia Z, Yan J, Wang Y, Xue S, Zhang X

Abstract
Quercetin is widely known as potent natural antioxidant and scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide both in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin has a wide range of biological functions and health-promoting effects. There are more and more interests in the addition of this flavonol to various traditional food products. However, the in vitro toxicity of quercetin to mature human sperm remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the in vitro effects of quercetin on human sperm functions. The results showed that the total sperm motility were significantly inhibited compared to the controls following exposure to 100, 200 and 400µM quercetin for 6 and 12h; quercetin did not affect human sperm viability. The acrosome reaction and capacitation induced by progesterone were dose-dependently inhibited by quercetin. Furthermore, quercetin induced a significantly decrease of human sperm [Ca(2+)]i after 2 min above 50 μM, and dose-dependently decreased the protein-tyrosine phosphorylation of human sperm. Our results indicated that quercetin may decrease sperm [Ca(2+)]i, suppresse tyrosine phosphorylation, and subsequently inhibit sperm functions.

PMID: 28167483 [PubMed - in process]

Melatonin protects oocyte quality from Bisphenol A-induced deterioration in the mouse.

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Melatonin protects oocyte quality from Bisphenol A-induced deterioration in the mouse.

J Pineal Res. 2017 Feb 08;:

Authors: Zhang M, Dai X, Lu Y, Miao Y, Zhou C, Cui Z, Liu H, Xiong B

Abstract
BPA (Bisphenol A) has been reported to adversely affect the mammalian reproductive system in both sexes. However, the underlying mechanisms regarding how BPA disrupts the mammalian oocyte quality and how to prevent it have not been fully defined. Here, we document that BPA weakens oocyte quality by impairing both oocyte meiotic maturation and fertilization ability. We find that oral administration of BPA (100 μg/kg body weight per day for 7 days) compromises the first polar body extrusion (78.0% VS 57.0%, p < 0.05) by disrupting normal spindle assembly, chromosome alignment and kinetochore-microtubule attachment. This defect could be remarkably ameliorated (76.7%, p < 0.05) by concurrent oral administration of melatonin (30 mg/kg body weight per day for 7 days). In addition, BPA administration significantly decreases the fertilization rate of oocytes (87.2% VS 41.1%, p < 0.05) by reducing the number of sperm binding to the zona pellucida, which is consistent with the premature cleavage of ZP2 as well as the mis-localization and decreased protein level of ovastacin. Also, the localization and protein level of Juno, the sperm receptor on the egg membrane, are strikingly impaired in BPA-administered oocytes. Finally, we show that melatonin administration substantially elevates the in vitro fertilization rate (63.0%, p < 0.05) by restoring above defects of fertilization proteins and events, which might be mediated by the improvement of oocyte quality via reduction of ROS levels and inhibition of apoptosis. Collectively, our data reveal that melatonin has a protective action against BPA-induced deterioration of oocyte quality in mice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 28178360 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Adapting and Applying the Phenice (1969) Adult Morphological Sex Estimation Technique to Subadults.

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Adapting and Applying the Phenice (1969) Adult Morphological Sex Estimation Technique to Subadults.

J Forensic Sci. 2017 Feb 06;:

Authors: Klales AR, Burns TL

Abstract
This research evaluated whether adult morphological sex estimation methods of the innominate could be adapted and applied to subadults. The subpubic concavity, described by Phenice (1969) and revised by Klales et al. (2012), was modified for use with subadults. Two observers scored radiographic images from the PATRICIA database of 334 individuals of both sexes aged between 1.19 and 20.47 years. Score frequencies shifted from score 2 (straight) to higher frequencies of score 3 (convexity) in males and score 1 (concavity) in females with increasing age. Using ordinal logistic regression, sex classification was highest for the oldest age cohort at 97.2% and then decreased by age cohort. Interobserver error rendered a high level of agreement (0.806) using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Results indicate that the Klales method can be modified and applied to subadults to accurately estimate sex following the onset of puberty with a high degree of reliability and validity.

PMID: 28168696 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

SN 598: Two Armed Bandits

Security Now (MP3)

Speak of the devil... printers around the world get hacked! Vizio's TVs really were watching their watchers, Windows has a new 0-day problem, Android's easy-to-hack pattern lock, an arsonist's pacemaker rats him out, a survey finds that many iOS apps are not checking TLS certificates, the courts create continuing confusion over eMail search warrants, a blast from the past: SQL Slammer appears to return, Cellebrite's stolen cell phone cracking data begins to surface, some worrisome events in the Encrypted Web Extensions debate, Non-Windows 10 users are not alone, a couple of questions answered, my report of a terrific Sci-Fi series, a bit of miscellany... and a fun story about one-armed bandits being hacked by two armed bandits.

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Hosts: Steve Gibson and Leo Laporte

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