Willems method of dental age estimation in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
J Forensic Leg Med. 2017 Aug 25;52:122-129
Authors: Sehrawat JS, Singh M
BACKGROUND: Age estimation from dental developmental stages is considered comparatively more accurate, reliable and precise than other methods used in forensic sciences. Willems method is the revised version of Demirjian method, based on modified dental maturity scores to estimate age of children in years for both the sexes.
AIMS: To test the applicability and accuracy level of Willems method of dental age estimation in diverse population samples by quantifying the variations between the chronological and estimated ages of an individual.
METHODOLOGY: A systematic search of online databases (Pubmed, Scopus, Embase, Medline, Trip and Web of Science) was performed for identifying the articles utilizing Willems dental maturity scaling method for age estimation in children. All the research articles published in peer-reviewed English language journals between 2001 and January 2017 were included for present systematic review and meta-analysis.
RESULTS: Out of the total 973 selected articles; thirty one studies were recruited for qualitative analysis and out of them, 15 studies were selected/identified for quantitative and meta-analysis. It was found that Willems method overestimates the age of children to a comparatively lesser extent (-0.04 and -0.02 years) than the Demirjian method (around six months).
CONCLUSION: Willems method of dental age estimation gives comparatively lesser overestimations of age than other methods reported in the available literature and is thus, accurate and reliable enough to be utilized for forensic purposes.
PMID: 28918371 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Sexual dimorphism in base of skull.
Anthropol Anz. 2017 Apr 01;74(1):9-14
Authors: Amores-Ampuero A
ABSTRACT: Sex determination is an important task in forensic medicine and physical anthropology. The aims of this study were to assess the presence of sexual dimorphism in the base of the skull and to compare the accuracy of sex estimation by this method with that achieved in other metric studies of this region. The sample comprised 109 individuals (53 males and 56 females) of known sex, age, and cause of death from San José cemetery in Granada (Spain). Six dimensions were analyzed and discriminant function analysis was performed. The discriminant capacity of the selected variables was then evaluated by using a cross-validation procedure. All dimensions were significantly higher in males than in females. The percentage accuracy was 75.7% (77.8% for males and 73.7% for females). Highest dimorphic values were for occipital condyle length and foramen magnum width. Skull base measurements should only serve to corroborate findings.
PMID: 28362021 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
This week we discuss last Friday's passing of our dear friend and colleague Jerry Pournelle, when AI is turned to evil purpose, whether and when Google's Chrome browser will warn of man in the middle attacks, why Google is apparently attempting to patent pieces of a compression technology they did not invent, another horrifying router vulnerability disclosure -- including ten 0-day vulnerabilities, an update on the sunsetting of Symantec's CA business unit, another worrying failure at Comodo, a few quick bits, an update on my one commercial product SpinRite, answering a closing the loop question from a listener, and a look at the Equifax fiasco.
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Reliability and validity of five radiographic dental-age estimation methods in a population of Malaysian children.
J Investig Clin Dent. 2016 Feb;7(1):102-9
Authors: Kumaresan R, Cugati N, Chandrasekaran B, Karthikeyan P
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reliability and validity of Demirjian's, Willems, Nolla's, Haavikko's, and Cameriere's radiographic methods of dental-age estimation in a population of Malaysian children.
METHODS: A total of 426 dental panoramic radiographs of 5-15-year-old Malaysian children were included in the study. The mean age error and absolute age error for all the methods were calculated and their usability analyzed.
RESULTS: The Nolla, Willems. and Demirjian methods overestimated the dental age with a mean of 0.97, 0.54, and 0.54 years, respectively, while the Cameriere and Haavikko methods underestimated by 0.41 and 1.31 years, respectively. The Cameriere method was highly precise and accurate in the population of Malaysian children, whereas the Haavikko and Demirjian methods were the least precise and accurate.
CONCLUSIONS: The Cameriere method of dental-age estimation is highly valid and reliable for Malaysian population, followed by the Willems and Nolla methods.
PMID: 25048008 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Antioxidant Effect of Xanthan Gum on Ram Sperm after Freezing and Thawing.
Cryo Letters. 2017 May/Jun;38(3):187-193
Authors: Gastal GD, Silva EF, Mion B, Varela Junior AS, Rosa CE, Corcini CD, Mondadori RG, Vieira AD, Bianchi I, Lucia T
BACKGROUND: Xanthan gum is used as thickener in media to preserve food products, having cryoprotectant and antioxidant properties that may be relevant for sperm cryopreservation.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of adding xanthan gum to freezing extenders on post-thawing quality and oxidant activity of ram sperm.
METHODS: Ejaculates from seven rams extended TRIS-egg yolk-glycerol were split in three treatments including xanthan gum (0.15%; 0.20%; and 0.25%) and a control with no xanthan gum.
RESULTS: After thawing, motility and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with 0.20% and 0.25% xanthan gum were lower than for the control (P < 0.05), but mitochondrial functionality and integrity of membrane, acrosome and DNA did not differ (P > 0.05). Xanthan gum at 0.20% and 0.25% may be an efficient antioxidant for frozen-thawed ram sperm, due to the reduction in ROS production.
PMID: 28767741 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training for improving reproductive function in infertile men: a randomized controlled trial.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017 Aug 18;:
Authors: Hajizadeh Maleki B, Tartibian B
This randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the effects of 24 weeks of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on seminal markers of inflammation and oxidative stress as well as markers of male reproductive function and reproductive performance in infertile patients. Of a total of 1296 infertile patients (aged 25-40 years) who were screened, 556 were randomly assigned to exercise (EX, n = 278) and non-exercise (NON-EX, n = 278) groups. Semen samples were taken before, 12 and 24 weeks as well as 7 and 30 days post intervention. The training program reduced seminal proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] and markers of oxidative stress [reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-Isoprostane] (P < 0.05). Additional improvements were also achieved in seminal antioxidant defense system [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)] (P < 0.05). Training-induced changes in inflammation and oxidative stress status correlated with favorable improvements in semen parameters, sperm DNA integrity, and pregnancy rate (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these results support the evidence for the favorable effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training in male factor infertility.
PMID: 28820950 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Melatonin ameliorates restraint stress-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in testicular cells via NF-κB/iNOS and Nrf2/ HO-1 signaling pathway.
Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 29;7(1):9599
Authors: Guo Y, Sun J, Li T, Zhang Q, Bu S, Wang Q, Lai D
Decline in semen quality has become a global public health concern. Psychological stress is common in the current modern society and is associated with semen decline. Increasing evidence demonstrated that melatonin has anti-apoptotic and antioxidant functions. Whether melatonin can ameliorate the damage in testes induced by psychological stress has never been investigated. Here, a mouse model of restraint stress demonstrated that melatonin normalized the sperm density decline, testicular cells apoptosis, and testicular oxidative stress in stressed male mice. Melatonin decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) activities, and downregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) activities in stressed mice testes. Furthermore, melatonin reduced the stress-induced activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway by decreasing the phosphorylation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα) and p65 nuclear translocation. In addition, melatonin upregulated the expression of anti-oxidant proteins including nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Meanwhile, in vitro studies also demonstrated melatonin could reduce oxidative apoptosis of testicular cells. Collectively, melatonin mitigated psychological stress-induced spermatogenic damage, which provides evidence for melatonin as a therapy against sperm impairment associated with psychological stress.
PMID: 28851995 [PubMed - in process]
Effects of sodium pyruvate on viability, synthesis of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and DNA integrity of cryopreserved bovine sperm.
Anim Reprod Sci. 2017 Aug 07;:
Authors: Korkmaz F, Malama E, Siuda M, Leiding C, Bollwein H
The aim of this study was to examine effects of sodium pyruvate on viability as well as on synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and DNA integrity of cryopreserved bovine sperm. In each of 23 Simmental AI bulls three ejaculates were collected. In a split sample design ejaculates were diluted by using Triladyl(®) extender without and with the addition of 5mM sodium pyruvate. Both aliquots were equilibrated for 24h before freezing. Frozen sperm samples were thawed, and examined immediately after thawing (0h) as well as after 3, 6, 12, and 24h incubation at 37°C. The percentages of rapidly motile sperm (RMS), plasma membrane and acrosome intact sperm (PMAI), sperm with a high mitochondrial membrane potential (HMMP), amounts of ROS synthesis (dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH), CellROX Deep Red Reagent(®) probe (CellROX)) and lipid peroxidation of sperm (LPO) and percentage of sperm with a high degree of DNA fragmentation (%DFI) were determined. Overall, sperm diluted with the extender containing sodium pyruvate showed higher levels of RMS, PMAI and HMMP, CellROX and lower %DFI values (P<0.001) compared to sperm frozen in the extender without sodium pyruvate. However, there was no effect (P>0.05) of sodium pyruvate on LPO and DCFH. The results of this study show that the addition of sodium pyruvate to the semen extender improved the viability as well as DNA integrity of cryopreserved sperm and did not affect their lipid peroxidation, although it increased the synthesis of some ROS.
PMID: 28864278 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Enhancement of sperm motility and viability by turmeric by-product dietary supplementation in roosters.
Anim Reprod Sci. 2017 Aug 30;:
Authors: Yan W, Kanno C, Oshima E, Kuzuma Y, Kim SW, Bai H, Takahashi M, Yanagawa Y, Nagano M, Wakamatsu JI, Kawahara M
Improving sperm motility and viability are major goals to improve efficiency in the poultry industry. In this study, the effects of supplemental dietary turmeric by-product (TBP) from commercial turmeric production on sperm motility, viability, and antioxidative status were examined in domestic fowl. Mature Rhode Island Red roosters were divided into two groups - controls (groupC) without TBP administration and test subjects (groupT) fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.8g of TBP/day in a temperature-controlled rearing facility (Experiment 1) and 1.6g/day under heat stress (Experiment 2) for 4 weeks. In Experiment 1, TBP dietary supplementation increased the sperm motility variables straight-line velocity, curvilinear velocity, and linearity based on a computer-assisted semen analysis, 2 weeks following TBP supplementation. In Experiment 2, using flow cytometry, sperm viability at 3 and 4 weeks following TBP supplementation was greater in Group T than C, and this increase was consistent with a reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production at 2 and 4 weeks. The results of both experiments clearly demonstrate that dietary supplementation with TBP enhanced sperm motility in the controlled-temperature conditions as well as sperm viability, and reduced ROS generation when heat stress prevailed. Considering its potential application in a range of environments, TBP may serve as an economical and potent antioxidant to improve rooster fertility.
PMID: 28869111 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]